Boston Medical Library
in the Francis A. Countway
Library of Medicine -Boston
See p. 152.
ROBERT MACNISH, LL.D.
Author of " The Anatomy of Drunkenness" and " The Philosophy of Sleep," and Jlember of
the Faculty of Physicians and Sxirgeons of Glasgow.
EWLARGED, AND ILLUSTRATED BY THIRTY FOUCt ENGRAVINGS.
JOHN SYMINGTON & CO.
EDINBURGH:— OLIVER AND BOYD.
LONDONi-WHITTAKER & CO.
ROBERT COX, Esq.
CONSERVATOR OP THE MUSEUM OF THE PHRENOLOGICAL SOCIETY,
IS INSCRIBED, BY HIS FRIEND,
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School
THE SECOND EDITION.
The success of this work has greatly exceeded the expec-
tations of the author. Two thousand copies of the first
edition were issued, and six months sufficed to exhaust the
whole number. The book has also been printed by Messrs.
Marsh, Capen, and Lyon of Boston, in the United States,
and with every prospect of an equally rapid circulation in
that country. These circumstances speak well for Phren-
ology, both in Great Britain and America. In the present
edition, the work wears an entirely new aspect. It has
been, in a great measure, re-written; and besides much new
matter, contains a series of illustrations in wood, executed
by Mr. Bruce of Edinburgh, the most skilful engraver of
phrenological subjects in this country. The method of
question and answer, the propriety of which at first seemed
doubtful, appears to have been generally approved of. For
a short treatise on a debateable subject like Phrenology it
is well adapted, in so far as it affords an opportunity of
bringing- prominently forward all the objections, however
important or frivolous, which have been made to the science,
and of meeting them with suitable replies.
REX-ERBING TO THE ¥XGITJ5S IXUirATING TIIKIR UEt.Vmi; I'OSinOXS.
INTE 1.I.E C TT^AX,
11 LoTc of^iprolialiaa
2 3 IT arm
CLASSIFICATION OF THE FACULTIES.
ORDEK I FEELINGS, OR AFFECTIVE FACULTIES.
Genus I. — Propensities.
1. Araativeness. f Alimentiveness.
2. Philoprogenitiveness. Love of Life.
3. Concentrativeness. 7. Secretiveness.
4. Adhesiveness. 8. Acquisitiveness.
6. Combativeness. 9. Constructiveness.
Genus II. — Sentiments.
Species 1. — Inferior Sentiments.
10. Self- Esteem. 12. Cautiousness.
11. Love of Approbation.
Species 2. — Superior Sentiments.
13. Benevolence. 18. Wonder.
14. Veneration. 19. Ideality.
15. Firmness. 20. Wit.
16. Conscientiousness. 21. Imitation.
1 7. Hope.
ORDER II.— INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.
Genus I — The External Senses.
Smell. Mechanical Resistance.
Genus IL — The Perceptive, or Knowing Faculties.
Species 1. — Intellectual Faculties which take cognizance of the ex-
istence of external objects, and their physical qualities.
22. Individuality. 25. Weight.
23. Form. 26. Colouring.
Species 2 Intellectual Faculties which take cognizance of the
relations of external objects.
27. Locality. 3L Time.
28. Number. 32. Tune.
29. Order. 33. Language.
Genus IIL — Reflective Faculties.
34. Comparison. 33. Causality.
My first ideas of Phrenology were obtained from Dr. Gall
himself, its founder, whose lectures I attended in Paris
during the year 1825. Before that time 1, in common with
almost all who are ignorant of the subject, spoke of it with
great contempt, and took every opportunity of turning it
into ridicule. The discourses of this great man, and several
private conversations which I had the honour of holding with
him, produced a total change in my ideas, and convinced me
that the doctrines he taught, so far from deserving the absurd
treatment which they then generally met with, were, in
themselves, highly beautiful as expositions of the human
mind in its various phases, and every way worthy of atten-
tion. Much reflection and many appeals to nature, since that
period, have satisfied me of their truth.
Few subjects have encountered such persevering hostility
as the doctrines in question ; and persons now commencing
the study can have little idea of the gross insults heaped upon
its early cultivators by those who pretended to rule public
opinion in matters of science and literature. Such usage,
however, is not without many parallels in the history of the
world. Persecution is the reward of innovation in whatever
form that appears. To the truth of this assertion the banish-
ment of Pythagoras, the poison cup of Socrates and the
dungeon gloom of Galileo bear ample testimony. In our
own country the sublime discoveries of Newton were long
violently opposed, and Harvey, for ascertaining the most
important fact in modern physiology, the circulation of the
blood, was rewarded with abuse and the loss of his practice.
In France things were no better — Descartes, one of the
greatest geniuses that ever lived, having had the charge of
atheism levelled against him for maintaining the doctrine of
innate ideas. The stale trick of representing discoveries in
science as hostile to religion, has, indeed, always been a fa-
vourite one with the enemies of knowledge, and even in these
comparatively enlightened times is frequently had recourse
to by the designing and the ignorant. Nothing is more com-
mon than to hear modern geology denounced as at variance
with the word of God, and its cultivators held up as a con-
clave of infidels ; nor has Phrenology escaped the same absurd
charge, in the face of the notorious truth, that it is openly
advocated by some of the most intelligent and pious of our
clergy, and that the parent Phrenological Society was founded
by the Rev. Dr. Welsh, Professor of Church History in the
University of Edinburgh.i
Had the hostility to the Phrenological doctrines been con-
fined to the weak-minded and illiterate, the circumstance would
have escited no surprise, but at the first announcement of
the science we find it assaulted on all sides by the learning
1 " I think it right to declare that I have found the greatest benefit from
the science as a minister of the Gospel. I have been led to study the evi-
dences of Christianity anew, in connexion with Phrenology, and I feel my
confidence in the truth of our holy religion increased by this new examin-
ation. I have examined the doctrines of our church also, one by one, in
connexion with the truths of our new science, and have found the most
w^onderful harmony subsisting between them. And in dealing with my
people in the ordinary duties of my calling, the practical benefit I have
derived from Phrenology is inestimable." — Rev. Br. Welsh. See Phrenolo-
gical Journal, vol. v. p. 110.
" That the religious and moral objections against the phrenological theory
are utterly futile, I have from the first been fully convinced." — Whatlevy
Lord Archbishop of Dublin.
and reputation of Europe. These attacks it has calmly and
dispassionately met, and who that has surveyed the contest
will have the hardihood to say that it has not triumphed ?
A more striking instance of the impossibility of stifling truth,
has never been presented to the world, than in the victorious
struggle of this science.
One of the most virulent attacks upon the new doctrines
was made in the 49th number of the Edinburgh Review by
the late Dr John Gordon, who not contented with unfairly
misstating them, according to the usual practice of their op-
ponents, demeaned himself by indulging in acrimonious per-
sonalities against the characters of Gall and Spurzheim.
This attack, which in truth displayed nothing but gross
ignorance and unbounded misrepresentation, was duly met
and its various delinquencies exposed by the latter of
these distinguished men. Lord Jeffrey in the 88th number
of the same able work repeated the assault, only, however,
to meet with a confutation equally conclusive from the
pen of Mr. Combe. The attack was elegant, lively and
satirical, and written in a not ungentlemanly spirit, but the
accomplished writer lacked knowledge of the subject, and
fell an easy victim before the well stored armoury of
facts and reasonings, wdth which he was encountered by
his acute antagonist.^ An elaborate article by Dr. Roget,
2 Some of the obseryatioiis in the Edinburgh Keyiew are amusing.
Take the following as examples : —
" To enter on a particular refutation of them, (the opinions of Gall
and Spurzheim) would be to insult the understandings of our readers." —
" We look upon the whole doctrines taught by these two modern Peripa-
tetics, anatomical, physiological, and physiognomical, as apiece of thorough
quackery from beginning to end ; and we are persuaded that every intelli-
gent person, avIio takes the trouble to read a single chapter of the volumes
before us, will view them precisely in the same light." — "They are a collec-
tion of mere absurdities, without truth, connexion or consistency, an in.
coherent rhapsody, which nothing- could have induced any man to have
presented to the public, under pretence of instructing them, but absolute
ill the supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britanniea, was also
replied to by Mr. Combe, and from this article having
been withheld from the new edition of the work, we may
conclude that neither the doctor nor his publishers were
satisfied with the success of their experiment. From the
extensive knowledge of Sir William Hamilton, much was
expected in the "way of opposition, but he fared no better
than his predecessors. The same may be said of Drs. Stone,
Barclay, Prichard, Bostock, and in truth, of all who have
attacked the science. The whole body of crusaders against
Phrenology are characterized by one curious feature. Each
individual combatant imagines that he has annihilated the
doctrines, and that they will never more be heard of; each
employs the same arguments as if they had never been used
before; each is in a state of perfect ignorance, with respect
to the manner in which these arguments have already been
disposed of; and finally, each invariably gives a false and
distorted representation of the science. Few of those who
have written against it, have done so in a generous, truth-
loving mood. An unaccountable spirit of hatred has con-
fused their perceptions, and rendered men whose talents
ought to have made them formidable in the field of con-
troversy, weak and inefficient as children. Hence, in every
contest with their opponents, they have been defeated; nor
insanity, gross ignorance, or the most matchless assurance."—" Such is the
trash, the despicable trumpery, which two men calling themselves scientific
inquirers, have the impudence gravely to present to the physiologists of the
nineteenth century as specimens of reasoning and induction." — Dr. Gor-
don, in No. xlix,
" Every one of course, has hoard of Dr. Gall's craniology, and seen his
plaster heads mapped out into territories of some thirty or forty iudepen.
dent faculties. Long before this time, we confess, we expected to have seen
them turned into toys for children, and this folly consigned to that great
limbo of vanity to which the dreams of alchemy, sympathetic medicine, and
animal magnetism had passed before it" — Lord Jeffrey in No. Ixxxviii.
has this taken place because the phrenologists possessed
the advantages of superior talent and logical acumen, but
simply because they entered the arena backed by truth.
Without this indispensable ingredient, the- greatest natural
powers go for nothing in a question of facts, and with it
the meanest become formidable.^
Great progress has been made by the science within the
last ten years, especially in Great Britain, France, and the
United States. It has met with considerable success in
Sweden and Denmark, and has even succeeded in forcing
its way into Italy. The late Professor Uccelli of Florence
was a phrenologist. For this heinous offence he lost his
chair in the university of that city, and was persecuted with
all the blind malice of bigotry and intolerance. Two of
the best phrenologists in the north, are Drs. Hoppe and Otto,
both eminent Danish physicians, the latter Professor of
Materia Medica, and Medical Jurisprudence in the univer-
sity of Copenhagen. Berzelius of Stockholm, the most illus-
trious of living chemists, has become a convert to the science,
and Andral, Broussais, Cloquet, Bouillaud, Sanson, Voisin,
Falret, and Vimont, who are among the greatest medical
chafaciers in the French capital, have done the same.4 The
3 Those who intend writing against Phrenology, will save themselves the
trouble of repeating stale and often confuted arguments, by perusing the
different attacks made on the science, and the answers which have been made
to them. A full list of these attacks and replies will be found in an article
entitled " Phrenological Controversies," in the Phrenogical Journal, vol.
X. p. 150.
4 Many other able physicians are also members. Among a multitude of
non-medical names I find the following, some of them men of considerable
eminence — Blondeau, Dean of the Faculty of Law, David, the celebrated
sculptor, the Duke of Montobello (peer of France), Julien director of the
" Revue Encyclopedique", Poncelet, Professor of the Faculty of Law, Comte,
Professor of Philosophy to the Athenaeum, Royer, Chief Secretary to the
Administration of the Garden of Plants, Les Cases and Ternaux, members
of the Chamber of Deputies, &c. &c.
conversion of the last of these eminent men is curious, and
forms a memorable fact in the history of Phrenology. Hav-
ing attended Gall, he thought he could easily refute his
doctrines, and for this purpose made a vast collection of
specimens, chiefly of skulls of the lower animals ; but the
very evidence he was thus accumulating for the overthrow
of the science had entirely the opposite effect. It satisfied
him of its truth, and led to the publication of his magnificent
work on " Human and Comparative Phrenology." A Phreno-
gical Society, numbering among its members many of the
ablest scientific and literarj'- men of Paris, has for some
years been in active existence. By this body, a journal,
exclusively devoted to the subject, and containing many
admirable papers, is regularly published. Great zeal for
Phrenology exists in the United States. Dr. Caldwell of
Lexington, Kentucky, has written with uncommon talent
upon the subject, and a valuable work entitled " Annals of
Phrenology " is issued periodically at Boston. In that city
a Phrenological Library is in the course of publication, con-
sisting of reprints of all the best works which have ap-
peared on the science, embodying also a translation, in six
volumes, of Dr. Gall's unrivalled work Sur les Fonctions du
Cerveau. Mr. Lawrence, one of the first surgeons and
physiologists in this country, is favourable to the doctrines.
In London, they have been supported with great power of
reasoning by Dr. Elliotson; and such able physicians as
Mackintosh of Edinburgh, Marsh of Dublin, and Barlow of
Bath, have not hesitated openly and unscrupulously to
adopt them. For more than ten years the Medico-Chirur-
gical Review and Lancet, the ablest medical periodicals in
Great Britain, have honourably distinguished themselves in
defence of the same cause. In Germany the science has pros-
pered less than almost any where else in civilized Europe, thus
verifying the old adage that "prophets are never esteemed in
their own country." Even there, however, the rapid sale of a
recent translation of Mr. Combe's *' System of Phrenology,"
by Dr. Hirschfeld of Bremen, proves that public attention
has at length been awakened to it ; and there are good
grounds for believiug that the celebrated Blumenbach, con-
trary to the general understanding upon the subject, decid-
edly favours its pretensions.^ Yet we are told that no
men of eminence, have become converts to the science.
The names here recorded suflBciently refute this assertion ;
and the Phrenological Societies of London, Edinburgh, and
Paris, can boast of names inferior in talent and reputation
to none in Europe. Considering the opposition which Gall's
doctrines have met with, their acceptance by so large a por-
tion of the public, is matter of wonder rather than otherwise.
Newton's sublime discoveries met with no such prompt recep-
tion. They were long acrimoniously opposed in his own
country, and at his death, more than forty years after the
publication of the Principia, he had not above twenty fol-
lowers on the Continent.^
The advance which Phrenology has made against the vast
difficulties it has had to encounter, is indeed matter of con-
gratulation, but much remains yet to be achieved. The
weight of the Universities, and other seats of learning, bears
strongly against it. There the metaphysics of the schools
have been entrenched for ages, and will not surrender with-
out a desperate struggle. The middle-aged and the elderly
of the existing race, must die out before the new philosophy
displays its full power. It is among the young, those whose
minds have not been pre-occupied by other systems, and
-5 See Phrenological Journal, vol. viii. p. 531.
6 For a complete account of the present state of the science, the reader
is referred to Mr. Watson's excellent work, entitled " Statistics of Phren-
whose judgments are yet free and unshackled, that it is
spreading most triumphantly. Its simple, intelligible and
eminently practical character fits it admirably for unso-
phisticated youth, and it is pleasing to behold the steady
progress which it is making among the young of both sexes.
Even into colleges it is finding an entrance. Students in
the metaphysical classes are beginning to imbue their essays
with phrenological doctrines, either openly or in disguise,
to the great horror of their professors, some of whom have
. thought fit to denounce, ex cathedra, the hundred-headed
i monster which has thus presumed to show its detested pre-
sence within the walls of Alma Mater.
Some people declare that they believe in the general
principles of Phrenology, but not in its details. It would
be far better to reject the science altogether, than indulge
in such unmeaning perversion of language. All general
principles are made up from details, and if the latter are
faulty so must be the former. To say that we believe
in the integrity of a whole, yet deny the soundness of
the parts composing it is a pure absurdity. What would
be thought of that man's intellect who acknowledged a
certain ship of war to be perfectly sound and sea-worthy,
and yet declared the timbers of which it was constructed
to be rotten ? To admit the principles of Phrenology, and
yet deny the details which give these principles existence, is
not less preposterous.
It has been objected to the science that certain erudite
bodies have expressed their disbelief in it. When, however,
it is known that these bodies know little or nothing of its
true character, this objection will not, with any man of sense,
weigh a single straw in the balance. Newton's discoveries were
not proved to be false, because the University of Oxford
resisted them for half a century. The opinions of all the
learned associations in Europe, are valueless upon a subject
of which they are ignorant. Nor is the objection, that the ma-
jority of medical men are hostile to Phrenology better founded.
Let it not be forgotten, that the most eminent members of
the profession long opposed the doctrine of the circulation
of the blood, now universally admitted by physiologists.
On a matter which he has never studied, the opinion of a
medical man is no better than that of another person ; and
the general ignorance of the profession regarding Phren-
ology, is too well known to require demonstration. The
existing race of medical students, however, are beginning
to pay due attention to it; and, by and by, a knowledge of
the subject will be so generally diffused among practitioners,
that he who is deficient in this respect, will be considered
to have neglected an important branch of his professional
studies. The light which this science throws upon the
physiology and pathology of the brain, and especially on
the numerous class of mental diseases, is immense, and can
only be appreciated by those who have turned their atten-
tion to it.
The superiority of the phrenological doctrines over every
previous system of mental philosophy, consists in this — that
their truth can be demonstrated with the same facility as
any fact in nature, and that their bearings on the practical
workings of life are equally susceptible of demonstration.
Unlike scholastic metaphysics, they are not built in the
clouds, but have a tangible base to rest upon. Unlike them,
they are not mere barren speculations, but can be turned to
good account. If we look to the old philosophy, we find
its cultivators talking of perception, memory, judgment, and
imagination, as constituting the primary mental powers, and
using the machinery of attention, association, and habit, to
solve every obstacle which stood in their way. If a man
had great difiiculty in nicely discriminating shades of colour,
it was owing to an early want of attention ! If he were fond
of music or poetry, this resulted from association ! If he were
capable of great concentrated application, this had its origin
in habit ! In short, perception, memory, judgment, and imagi-
nation, are to the sound philosophy of the mind what the
four elements of fire, air, earth, and water are to modem
chemistry; while attention, association, and habit may be
said to represent Phlogiston, that convenient agent by
which every difficulty was at once got rid of. It is no
proof of the soundness of this crude theory, that it was
adopted by great names. In the dawn of every science,
talents of the first order often got widely astray. Roger
Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Raymond Lully, Van Helmont,
and Paracelsus believed in the Elixir Vitae and the Philoso-
pher's Stone; and, till a comparatively recent period, the Stah-
lian theory was in general acceptation among chemists. The
same holds true with the philosophy of mind. Previous to
Gall's great discovery, no proper method of investigating
mental phenomena was known to metaphysicians, and gross
errors and misconceptions consequently existed. We were
gravely told, that the human mind was like a sheet of blank
paper, on which any impression could be made; that all
men were by nature precisely alike, and that variety of
talent and disposition depended upon circumstances. The
currency which such doctrines obtained, demonstrates a
state of ignorance with respect to the mind, not inferior to
that of physical science which existed in the days of the
alchymists. Gall was the first person who laid the axe to
the root of this barren tree, and planted a better in its
place. If any man proceeded upon the strictest principles
of the inductive philosophy, it was this illustrious individual.
His inferences were sternly deduced from facts which came
under his notice, and no one was ever less of a theorist.
The method upon which he proceeded, has been rigidly
followed by his disciples ; and though none of them
Mave equalled their master in originality or grasp of mind,
they may at least lay claim to the merit of being actuated
by the same spirit of investigation, and of endeavouring,
like him, to draw their knowledge directly from the book of
nature. If they have failed, the fault is chargeable upon
their own want of acuteness, and not upon the mode had
recourse to by them, for the purpose of eliciting truth.
As people get acquainted with Phrenology, and the
vast number of important points on which it bears, the op-
position which it has hitherto encountered will gradually
cease. This consummation is fast taking place, even already.
Converts are daily flocking to its ranks, and those who still
stand aloof are beginning to speak of it with some degree
of respect. The hostile efforts of the press will, for a time,
continue to check its onward march, but those are rapidly
giving way before increasing knowledge. In the meantimcj
some of the public prints abound with ingenious inventions
to its prejudice. Every paragraph is eagerly inserted if it
only bear against Phrenology. We are daily told of blun-
ders committed by expert Phrenologists, in their attempts to
predicate character, from examination of the head.'^ If a
notorious criminal is executed, we may calculate on being
7 For example, the story of Dr. Spurzheim and the bust of Lord Pom-
fret, as exposed in the sixth volume of the Phrenological Journal; or the
equally veracious one of Mr. Combe being imposed upon by a cast moulded
from a Swedish turnip. There is no end to such impudent fictions. The
alleged blunder*3 of expert phrenologists are, in fact, mere weak inventions
of the enemy, for the purpose of demolishing by fraud what they cannot en-
counter by fair argument. There have not even been awanting instances
of individuals writing out characters, the very reverse of their own, and
palming them off as phrenological failures. I know an instance of this kind,
and another is related by Mr. Combe ia his letter to Lord Jeffrey. Talking
of the Swedish turnip, the facetious personage who made the unsuccessful
attempt to play off tliis hoax against Phrenology, has since studied the
science, and become a complete convert to its truth. See page 13 of that
interesting volume, entitled " Selections from the Phrenological Journal,"
informed that he possessed a splendid development, and so
forth ! Lacenaire, the assassin of sixteen individuals, had^
we were told, such a formation of head as Gall would have
assigned to a mild, kind-hearted, religious character. Hare
was formidable in the regions of Benevolence and Ideality,
and Fieschi remarkably deficient in those of Firmness and
Destructiveness ! All such stories are idle inventions, with-
out a particle of truth, but they serve the intended purpose
of imposing upon the unwary, and exciting a hostile feeling
In whatever way we view this science, its tendency is
excellent. It is eminently useful to the medical practitioner,
by turning his attention forcibly to the state of the brain
I and whole nervous system, in health and disease — to those
who have the charge of lunatics and criminals — to those
! concerned in the administration of justice ^ — to parents, in
the intellectual, moral, and physical management of their
children, and, in short, to every class of society. Grievous
errors in education, in the treatment of malefactors, and in
what are called mental diseases, are constantly committed,
8 Were Phrenology known, as it ought to be, by judges and public pro-
secutors, we should not behold the revolting spectacle of lunatics perishing
on the scaffold, as is too often the case in Great Britain; nor medical men
giving it as their opinion, that the unfortunates who have so perished were
responsible agents. There is something appalling in the thought of inflict-
ing death on creatures whom God has stricken w^ith idiocy or derangement,
merely because those who try them, and those who testify to their fitness for
being put upon trial, are ignorant of the nature of their malady. No man
can now doubt, that Barclay who was hanged at Glasgow, and Howison
' who suffered the same fate at Edinburgh, were disordered in intellect to a
degree which placed them beyond the pale of responsibility. The light
thrown by Phrenology on Mental Derangement is most valuable, and will,
in time, be so reflected upon Criminal Jurisprudence as to render such
dreadful misapplication of the law a rare, or rather an impossible, occur-
rence. In the third and tenth volumes of the Phrenological Journal, there
is some valuable information on the subject of Insanity and Crime. See also
Dr. Combe's work on Mental Derangement, and the treatises on the same
subject by Burrows, Conolly, and Esquirol.
from ignorance of the light thrown by Phrenology upon
these important subjects. A science which is able to ac-
complish all this cannot be a trivial one; and time, the great
arbiter, will yet render it ample justice, when every thing
which has been said and written against it is utterly for-
What is the material organ of the mind?
The brain. The mind requires a material apparatus to
work with ; the brain is this apparatus. The brain itself,
however, is not alleged by phrenologists to be the mind, any-
more than a musical instrument is music, the tongue taste,
or the ears hearing. When the strings of a harp or violin
\ are touched in a particular manner we have music. When
i the brain is in certain states we have displays of the mental
1 faculties. Of the mind, as a separate entity, we can know
nothing whatever, and we must judge of it in the only way
in which it comes under our cognizance.^
What reason is there to infer that the mind is manifested
through the medium of the brain?
We have undoubted evidence of this in the following and
, many similar facts. When a person receives a violent blow
■ on the head — when blood or any other fluid presses upon
the brain — or when a portion of the skull is beaten in — in-
sensibility is a frequent, or rather a general occurrence.
I 9 " The mind sees through the medium of the eye, just as it thinks or feels
I through the medium of tlie brain ; and as clianges in the condition of the eye
I deteriorate or destroy the power of vision, without any affection of the prin-
I ciple of mind, the obvious inference follows, that, in like manner, may
I changes in thecondition of thebrain destroy the power of feeling or of think.
I ing, and yet the mind itself, or soul, remain essentially the same."— X>r.
I Combe on Mental Derangement.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 23
A dose of opium, by acting on the brain, suspends the phen-
omena of mind; in like manner, when the brain is inflamed,
the mental operations are disturbed. Did the mind act
independently of the brain, no physical injury or irritation
of the latter should have any effect upon the faculties ;
whereas, we find that the reverse is the case. Insanity, in
fact, is nothing but cerebral disease inducing disordered
mental manifestations. Finally, when the brain is extremely
small, idiocy is the invariable result. Such a form of head,
for instance, as is represented in the following sketch, is in-
compatible with the most ordinary degree of intelligence.
The subject of the engraving was an idiot girl, aged four-
teen, whom Dr. Spurzheim saw in Cork. The extreme
deficiency of brain is very obvious.
Does the mind consist of one faculty or of several?
Undoubtedly of many. We have the passions of fear,
love, attachment, pugnacity, &c. ; the sentiments of benevo-
lence, veneration, justice, &c. ; besides a variety of other
qualities, such as the powers of music, calculation, causation,
and many others. All these powers, susceptibilities, and
emotions of the mind are called faculties ; each is distinct,
and possessed by different individuals, in dij0Perent degrees.
Since the mental faculties are so varied^ how can a single
viscus like the brain manifest them all?
There is irresistible evidence to demonstrate that the
brain is not a single organ, but in reality a congeries of
organs, so intimately blended, however, as to appear one.
Each of these is the seat of a particular mental faculty; so
that, as the whole mind acts through the medium of the
whole brain, so does each faculty of the mind act through
the medium of a certain portion of the brain. Thus, there
is a part appropriated to the faculty of Tune, another to
that of Imitation, and so on through the whole series. The
brain, in short, as Dr. Spurzheim observes, " is not a simple
unit, but a collection of many peculiar instruments."
Upon what evidence do you found these assertions ?
The evidences are numerous. Were the brain a single
organ, of which every part was employed in the manifesta-
tion of all the mental faculties, there could be no such thing
as monomania, or madness on one point: if a portion of the
brain were diseased, the whole mind should suffer; whereas,
we often find that one faculty is insane, while all the others
are perfectly sound. In like manner, fatigue of one organ
should exhaust the whole, but we do not find this to be the
case; for after overtasking the reflecting powers, we may be
fully prepared to call others, such as Tune, Imitation, &c.
into energetic activity. Dreaming, likewise, is inconsistent
with the supposition that the brain is a single organ. If it
were so, we should be either completelj'^ awake or com-
pletely asleep; whereas, in dreams, one or more faculties
are in operation, while the rest continue in perfect repose.
The perversion in madness, and the wakefulness in dream-
ing, of certain faculties, cannot otherwise be explained, than
GENEEAL PRINCIPLES. 25
by supposing that each of these has a separate locality
in the brain. It is only on the same principle that partial
o-enius can be accounted for.
These are certainly strong proofs, but are there no others
of a more direct and tangible description ?
Many such. It is sufficient to mention that if, in a healthy
brain, any particular portion is very much developed, the
individual will be found to possess a more than usual energy
in some particular faculty. Take, for instance, two heads,
as nearly as possible alike in their general configuration, but
differing strongly in shape at a certain part; the persons to
whom they belong will be found to resemble each other in
disposition, except in so far as the faculties connected with
the organ or organs which lie at that part are concerned :
here their characters will differ most materially. ^^
What is the science called which teaches all this?
It is denominated Phrenology, the merit of discovering
which, and reducing it into a system, is due to the celebrated
Dr. Gall of Vienna. Dr. Spurzheim, his disciple and asso-
ciate, has also done much to extend and improve the science,
which has been still farther advanced by the labours of Mr.
Combe, and other ingenious men in this country and on*the
What were the circumstances which led Dr. Gall to the
They were partly accidental, and partly omng to the in-;
10 Sibbern, the celebrated professor of Logic in the University of Copen.
hagen, expresses himself as follows :— " If, upon the whole, the brain is such i
an organ for the mind, that the latter cannot act without the former, but is
disturbed whenever the brain is morbidly affected, certainly nothing can be
objected to the principle in Dr. Gall's doctrine, that certain faculties of the
mind require certain modes of action in the brain, and have their appropriate
organs in it. To assert that a talent for mathematics requires a special or-
gan in the brain, is no more singular than to assert that thinking, in general,
requires a well organized brain. Psychologically considered, Dr. Gall's
doctrine is not at all improbable."
26 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
tuitive sagacity and excellent powers of observation pos-
sessed by that remarkable man. While a mere boy at
school, he observed that such of his fellow-pupils as had
prominent eyes were those with whom, in matters of scholar-
ship, he had the greatest difficulty in competing. He might
surpass them in original composition ; but in exercises of
verbal memory they left him far behind, and were invariably
the best scholars. On leaving school and going to the uni-
versity, he observed the same rule to hold good. The " ox-
eyed " students, as they were called, always bore away the
palm whenever the acquisition of languages was concerned.
This fact struck him forcibly, but for a long time he knew
not what to make of it. Some time afterwards, he had
occasion to remark that one of his acquaintances, with
whom he used to ramble in the woods, never lost his way,
which Gall himself frequently did. This young man had
two very marked prominences on his forehead, just above
the root of the nose, while with Gall there were no such
protuberances. On extending his observations, he found
that persons so characterized acquired with great ease a
knowledge of localities — that they found their way almost
intuitively, as it were, in any route, however complex, if
they had been there once before; and that those who wanted
the marks in question had great difficulty in so doing.
After reflecting deeply, he came to the conclusion that these
differences of talent might depend upon the size of particu-
lar parts of the brain. This happy idea having once sug-
gested itself, he followed it up with admirable skill and in-
defatigable perseverance, and at last ascertained distinctly,
that the strength of the mental faculties is, cceteris paribus,
in proportion to the size of those compartments of the brain
by which they are manifested.
One man, then, with a certain organ larger than it is in
another, will possess the faculty belonging to it in greatei
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 27
Most certainly; — supposing the brains of both to be
equally healthy, their temperaments the same, and the
circumstances in which they have been placed, equally
favourable for the excitement and cultivation of the parti-
cular faculty. ^^ It is obviously as impossible for a person
with a great deficiency of the organs of the moral senti-
ments, such as Benevolence and Conscientiousness, to be a
virtuous character, as it is for the brain of an idiot to dis-
play the splendid intellect of a Milton or a Cuvier.
A large brain, therefore, other circumstances being equal,
will be superior in power to a smaller one 9
Facts place this beyond a doubt. A large-brained person
acquires a natural ascendancy over another, whose cerebral
system is smaller. A nation of small-brained people is
easily conquered, and held in subjection; witness the facility
with which the small-headed Hindoos were subjugated, and
the extreme difficulty experienced in overcoming the Caribs,
whose brains are large and active. The large size of the
Scotch brain was probably one of the causes which rendered
the permanent subjugation of Scotland by the English im-
possible. No man acquires a supremacy over masses of his
fellow-men without a large head. The head of Pericles,
who wielded at will the fierce democracy of Athens, was ot
11 The degree with which an organ will manifest its power, depends
greatly upon the circumstances here mentioned. Temperament, in particu-
lar, has a powerful influence on the cerebral activity, and must be carefully
borne in mind. There is another circumstance which modifies the vigour
of an organ's manifestations, and that is the size of the organ in reference
to others in the same head. If two men, for example, have the same abso.
lute size of the organ of Tune, (the temperaments being similar) the natu.
ral strength of the faculty will be equal in each; but should Tune, in th
one case, be the largest intellectual organ, then there will be a considerabl
difference in the manifestation of musical power. The first person wi
cultivate his organ of Tune almost exclusively, and thus greatly increas
its energy : the other may cultivate it to some extent, but having othe
faculties still stronger, he will exert them more, and thus the natural cap?
bilities of his Tune will never be brought fully out.
28 GENERAL PEINCIPLES.
extraordinary size. Mirabeau, whose thunders shook the
National Assembly of France; Danton, who rode like an
evil spirit on the whirlwind of the French Revolution ;
Franklin, who guided, by the calm power of his wisdom
and virtue, the legislature of America, had all of them
heads of uncommon size. That of Mirabeau is spoken
of as enormous, and he is known to have possessed in-
credible force of character, as well as distinguished talent.
Without great size of head, Mr. O'Connell never could have
impressed himself so forcible as he has done upon the present
age. There is not a single instance of any one with a
small or moderate-sized brain wielding multitudes like the
Irish "Agitator," or grappling triumphantly with the dangers
of a troubled age, like the iron-hearted Cromwell, or raising
himself from a private station to the most splendid throne
in Europe, like the Emperor Napoleon. To accomplish
such feats, not great intellect merely is demanded, but com-
manding force of character, arising from unusual size of
What is the average weight of the brain f
The brain, at birth, weighs, according to Meckel, about ten
ounces. The usual weight of the male adult brain he estimates
at three pounds five ounces and a half.^^ According to Virey
12 Men in authority, such as military and naval commanders, governors
of work-houses and prisons, managers of large establishments, magistrates
and schoolmasters, should all have large heads ; otherwise, let their moral
qualities and talents be what they may, they will fail of insuring ready and
spontaneous obedience. The power of mind derived from a large brain
makes its possessor be feared and respected, while a small-brained person is
felt to be feeble and ineffective. The wrath of the first is formidable, that of
the other only excites laughter.
13 Dr. EUiotson presented to the London Phrenological Society, the
cast of the head of a male idiot, aged eighteen years, which measured only
sixteen inches in circumference, and seven inches and three quarters from
ear to ear, over the vertex. The cerebrum weighed but one pound seven
and a half ounces, and the cerebellum but four ounces ;' in all one pound
, GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 29
that of the female is three or four ounces less. Farther ob-
servations, however, are necessary, to ascertain the average
difference in this respect between the sexes, although the
fact is undeniable, that, generally speaking, the female brain
is the smaller of the two. '
Does the female brain differ in any other particular from
the male ?
It does. Certain portions are larger and others smaller.
Generally speaking, a woman's skull and brain, are longer
in proportion to their breadth than those of a man. This
point may readily be ascertained by taking even a cursory
glance at the heads of the two sexes.
What follows when an organ is remarkably small?
Extreme feeblenes of the faculty which is connected with it.
May not a large-brained person be an idiot?
Unquestionably ; but in such a case the cerebral structure
is in a morbid state. Generally speaking, however, when
a full-sized brain gets diseased, there exists some active form
of derangement, and not idiocy.
Will the exercise of an organ increase its size ?
It is so maintained by some phrenologists, but asufl&cientiy
large body of facts appears still wanting to set the matter
completely at rest. If we work an organ vigorously, es-
pecially during youth, it is not unreasonable to suppose thai
its bulk may be thereby augmented; the analogy of the
muscles favours such a conjecture. At all events, it is cer-
tain, that the energy and activity of the organ will be great-
ly increased. The lapse of ages of civilization, in any
country, will, very probably, improve the form and quality
of the national brain, by the continued action which this state
eleven ounces and a half. Compare this with the brain of Cuvier which
weighed three pounds ten ounces four drachms and a half. Where the
circumference of the adult head is under seventeen inches, mental imbecility
is the inevitable consequence.
30 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
of society confers on the moral and intellectual organs, and the
comparative inactivity in which it keeps the lower propen-
sities.14* The skulls of our ancestors, which have been dug up,
give indication of an inferior moral and intellectual organiz-
ation, and of stronger propensities than are presented by the
average of heads at the present day.
May an organ be well developed^ and yet incapable of
Tnanifesting its faculty in a powerful degreef
This may occasionally happen in consequence of a general
or partial want of energy in the brain. It is most likely
to occur in persons of a lymphatic temperament, where the
cerebral circulation is carried on with little vigour. Some-
times a single organ becomes apathetic, while the rest are
healthy. Isolated cases of this description form no objec-
14 In the article " Hydrocephale," in the twenty-second volume of the
" Dictionnaire des Sciences Medicales," it is stated, that the heads of great
thinkers frequently increase till fifty years of age. According to Itard, the
head of Napoleon, which acquired an enormous development, was small in
youth. The fact seems pretty well established, that if the brain is not exer-
cised, it may actually diminish in bulk. In long protracted madness, it
seems often to diminish, especially in the intellectual regions. Such was
probably the case with Dean Swift, who, for some years before death, was
in an imbecile state of mind. The portraits of that great man represent his
forehead as much larger than it appears in liis skull. Esquirol mentions
the case of an insane female, whose forehead, on her admission into the
hospital, was so large that he had a drawing made of it, but afterwards it
became small and narrow. In the Phrenological Journal vol. iv. p. 495,
the case of a deranged person is recorded, where the same event occurred.
" His head increased in size during the progress of his insanity, and to such
an extent that he observed the circumstance himself, and said that he
required a smaller size in each successive hat that he purchased. His intel-
lectual faculties were obviously feebler in the latter years of his life, for he
became incapable of collecting money by presenting receipts, and per-
orming some other little pieces of business which in former years he had
accomplished, and his forehead very perceptibly diminished and retreated
during the corresponding period. He accounted for the decrease in the
size of the hats he required by ascribing it to the sublimation of his brain ;
he said he was becoming purely ethereal, and that the grosser particles of
his head were evaporating daily."
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 31
:ion to Phrenology, but rather prove its truth, in so far as
fhey demonstrate that vigorous results cannot be expected
from unhealthy organs.
Can the natural dispositions and talents of an individual
be inferred by examination of his brain?
They can be predicated with great accuracy after such
an examination ; but it is necessary to take different circum-
stances into view, such as temperament, education, and
example, as they modify, to a considerable extent, the char- |
acter. A phrenologist, knowing these modifying causes,
can speak with great precision after examining the brain.
Can actions be inferred ?
No. These depend much on the circumstances in which
the person is placed. A phrenologist, examining the head
of Hare, would infer, that his mind was of a low and degraded
order, that its tendency was towards cruelty and conten-
tion, and that his pleasures were all of a base kind ; but
he could not infer that he would necessarily commit murder.
Hare became a murderer by the force of circumstances.
He lived many years without committing murder j and
when he did so, it was to obtain money to gratify his
grovelling desires. Could he have readily procured money
otherwise, it is not at all likely that he would have been
guilty of the crime. Men always act from the strongest
motives. The motives which induced Hare to murder, were
unhappily, stronger than the restraining ones, and, therefore,
15 Some people expect phrenologists to say, by an examination of the
head, what actions a man will necessarily commit, but this is a childish
piece of folly. The head of Hare was precisely the same the instant before
committing his first murder as it was the instant after. All that a phreno- ;
logist could afi&rm on seeing such a head, would be that its owner had an
organization, accompanied by dispositions which, in particular circumstances,
would almost inevitably lead him to the commission of some atrocious crime.
Hare was 36 when he commenced Ms horrible career. Supposing him to
32 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
Wherein consists the abuse of a faculty ?
A faculty is said to be abused when it acts in a degree too
intense, or towards an improper object; also when it is active
at an improper time, or in an improper place.
How are the faculties brought into communication with
the external world ?
By means of the external senses. The organs of these
senses (the ear, the eye, &c.) are connected with the brain
through the medium of nerves, which convey the impressions
made upon their respective organs to the cerebral mass,
and thus give to the mental faculties a cognizance of what is
occurring from without.
In predicating character, is it absolutely necessary to
examine the uncovered brain?
No. Inferences may, in general, be drawn with great
accuracy, during life, by examining the external surface of
Does not the skull afford an obstacle to obtaining a correct
idea of the shape of the brain f^^
have died at the age of 33 he would not have had the stigma of murder at-
tached to his name ; but nevertheless he must have possessed the same ten-
dency to commit crime as he manifested at a later period j and a phreno-
logisl; on being shown his head, and not knowing to whom it belonged,
would infer accordingly, making allowance for the way in which such a
character would be modified by circumstances.
16 The reader should make himself acquainted with the general anatomy
of the skull, otherwise he will be at a loss to understand the references
occasionally made to its particular parts. The bones of the skull-cap (that
cavity which contains the brain) are as follows: — 1. The frontal bone,
which forms the upper and forepart of the head. 2; The occipital bone,
which forms the lower and back part. 3. The two parietal bones, which lie
between the frontal and occipital, and form the sides and top of the head.
4. The two temporal bones, which lie in the temples, and form the lower
parts of the sides of the skull. 5. The ethmoid bone, which lies in the base of
the skull, immediately over and behind the nose. 6. The sphenoid bone,
which lies between the ethmoid and occipital bones, and supports the centre
of the brain. These bones are united by seams, or sutures. The coronal
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 33
This happens only in rare cases, and almost always at
isolated points ; the whole skull is seldom affected. In a
vast majority of cases, the cranium gives a minutely accurate
representation of the shape of the brain. In old age, how-
ever, the skull frequently becomes very thick, occasionally
very thin, and at other times of very unequal thickness.
In such cases, the form of the brain cannot be accurately
ascertained during life.
Are the form and texture of the skull and brain influenced
This is very frequently the case, especially if the malady
has been of lon^ continuance. The brain shrinks; its con-
volutions become narrower, and lose their turgescency. The
skull, at the same time, becomes very thick, but instead of
being soft and spongy, as in old age, it acquires great addi-
tional hardness and compactness of fibre, and has an appear-
ance not unlike ivory. In two hundred and sixteen heads
of maniacs, which were opened by Greding, a hundred and
sixty-seven were very thick, without taking into considera-
ation those, which/uiough of no unusual thickness, were
remarkably hard. Of a hundhred fuiriqus the skulls
of seventy-eight were thick ; and the same was the case
witn twenty-two out of thirty skulls of idiots. In such cases,
therefore, the cranium does not in general, accurately repre-
sent the form of the brain, and here we are not to expect
that just inferences of character can be drawn, any more
than in very advanced life.
Is the skull formed before or after the brain ?
The brain is formed first, and gives shape to the skull,
suture runs between the frontal and parietal bones, the lambdoidal suture
between the parietal and the occipital, and the sagittal suture between the
two parietals, along the centre of the head, stretching from the coronal to
the lambdoidal suture. The temporal sutures join the temporal bones to
the parietal, occipital, and frontal bones. The sphenoidal and ethmoidal
sutures connect these two bones to each other, and to the rest.
34 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
which is moulded over it. The process of ossification does
not commence till the seventh or eighth week of pregnancy,
and IS far irom being completed at birtn.
At what period does the brain attain its full size ?
Great differences of opinion exist with regard to this point.
According to phrenological wTiters, the brain does not attain
its full size till between the twentieth and thirtieth year,
while, according to Sir William Hamilton and the Wenzels,
it arrives at its utmost magnitude at the age of seven. In
such a conflict of totally diff'erent opinions, we must regard
the point as undecided, although it seems incredible, that
the brains of children of seven, are equal in size to those of
full-grown men. I, for one, do not believe it.
After attaining its full size, does the brain ever diminish?
It does so in very old age, at which time the cranium, as
already noticed, becomes frequently thicker, its inner layer
retreating inwards, and either being followed by the outer
layer, or leaving a considerable thickness of spongy diploe
Is the substance of the brain of the same consistence at
every period of life f
No. The infant brain is soft: as we grow older it becomes
more consistent, and in old age acquires still greater firmness.
Does Phrenology apply solely to the human race ?
It does not. The character of a dog is as much influenced
by the form of its brain as that of a man.
If a large brain gives greater mental power than a small
one, why is the brain of the sparrow inferior in size to that
of the vulture, an animal greatly inferior in sagacity?
I answer this by stating that the circumstances in the two
eases are by no means alike, and that we must compare the
brains of animals of the same species before we can arrive
at a proper knowledge of the effects of size. A large-brained
vulture will manifest greater energy than a small-brained
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 35
one, and so with the sparrow. It is evident that, in con-
trasting such different animals, circumstances are not the
same, the organization or constitution of the sparrow's brain
being different from that of the vulture's, and the intellectual
organs relatively larger. Compare sparrows with sparrows,
vultures with vultures, &c., and the truth of the phrenological
maxim of size being, ccBte7Hs paribus, the index of power, will
be made perfectly manifest. These remarks apply to the
muscular system as well as to the brain — the bodily strength
of some animals being much greater, in proportion to the
size of their muscles than that of others of a different species.
The flea, for example, as Haller has remarked, can draw
But of two fleas, that which has the larger muscles will have
the greater strength. Again, some birds with small eyes
have vision keener than birds of a different species with
larger eyes. In every case, therefore, individuals of the same
species must be compared.
Is intellectual power necessarily proportioned to the size
of the brain as compared ivith that of the body ?
It is not. The weight of the brain, for instance, to that
of the body in man, (supposing him to weigh, on an average,
154 pounds) is about as I to 46; in several varieties of the
ape tribe, as 1 to 22; in the sparrow, as 1 to 25; and in the
canary, as 1 to 14. Man, therefore, has a smaller brain, in
proportion to the size of his body, than any of these animals.
In like manner, the brain of the sagacious elephant is rela-
tively smaller than that of the goose; and the cerebral mass
of the intelligent, half-reasoning dog, inferior in bulk to the
brain of the cat, the rat, the mouse, and some other creatures
far inferior in intellect. It thus appears, that in con-
sidering the intelligence of animals, we can ground little on
the proportion subsisting between the brain and body.
36 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
Have all nations the same form of brain?
No. This varies considerably in different countries. The
African brain differs in shape from the European, and so
does the Carib and Esquimaux. Even in Europe, the
same form of brain does not prevail rigidly ; the German
brain, for instance, is rounder and less elongated than the
Do disjyositions ever change ?
If the form and texture of the brain changes, so neces-
sarily must the dispositions. The organ marked No. 1. in the
bust, for example, is of late development, seldom attaining its
full dimensions till the approach of manhood, when in con-
sequence of its augmented growth a manifest change takes
place in the character. The moral and intellectual organs
also acquire a considerable increase about the same period.
" It is now for the first time, that youth begin to feel strongly
the impulse of moral sentiment, realize the force of moral
obligation, and place ajust estimate on moral conduct. Hence
they are now recognised, in judicial proceedings, as moral
agents. And hence, it is by no means uncommon for boys
who had been previously vicious and unmanageable, to be-
come now correct and docile."^'' If Mr Deville's experiments
can be relied upon, we must infer that education and change
of circumstances may alter the shape of the head. Accord-
ing to his observation, the change takes place in the situation
of those organs the sphere of whose activity is increased or
May not character change without a corresponding altera-
tion in the shape of the head?
This in a limited sense is true. Circumstances by calling
into activity organs which have been little exercised, or
repressing the activity of others that have been much stimu-
11 Phrenological Journal, vol. vii, p. 497. 18 Se<j Appendix, No. iv.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 37
lated, may produce a change in the energy of their respective
functions. Still, in such a case, the character is not radically
different; it is only partially modified by the force of cir-
cumstances. Change these, and it will become as formerly. ^^
Can the dispositions of the lower animals be inferred from
the form of their brain f
They can. Cruel ferocious animals, such as the tiger,
and the hyena, have a particular form of brain very differ-
ent from that possessed by gentle, timid creatures, as the
fawn and the antelope. The brain of the hawk or vulture
19 Supposing such men as Charlemagne and Richard Cceur de Lion, to
have been apprenticed to a haberdasher, they would certainly cut no
very distinguished figure in this situation ; nay, it is more than probable,
they would be dismissed on the score of negligence and dulness. Supposing,
farther, that they are afterwards placed in situations calculated to call into
play their great military talents, and that they become illustrious warriors,
their former masters and fellow-shopmen would then call to mind the stu-
pidity wliich they displayed behind the counter, and very gravely infer that
a remarkable change has taken place in their characters. There is no such
change, however, as is here imagined. While officiating as haberdashers,
they were out of their element, and the formidable qualities of their minds
had no room for display. When, however, it came to be a question of
commanding armies, these qualities were brought into energetic operation,
and they no longer appeared the same men. Dr. Blair has the following
just remarks on change of character. "The seeds of various qualities,
good and bad, lie in all our hearts; but until proper occasions ripen and
bring them forward, they lie there inactive and dead." "For a while, the
man is known neither by the world nor by himself to be what he truly is.
But bring him into a new situation of life, which accords with his predo.
minant dispositions, which strikes on certain latent qualities of his soul and
awakens them into action; and as the leaves of a flower gradually unfold
to the sun, so shall all his true character open full to view. This may, in
one light be accounted, not so much an alteration of character, produced by
a change of circumstances, as a discovery brought forth of the real character,
which formerly lay concealed. Yet, at the same time, it is true that the
man himself undergoes a change. For the opportunity being given for cer-
tain dispositions, which had been dormant, to exert themselves without
restraint, they, of course, gather strength. By means of the ascendancy
which they gain, other parts of the temper are borne down, and thus an al-
teration is made in the whole structure and system of the soul." — Blair's
38 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
differs in shape from that of the dove. Birds which sing
have a differently formed brain from those which do not.^o
A more accurate comparison, however, may be drawn between
the heads of animals of the same species : thus, there is a
marked difference in the heads of two horses or dogs, one
gentle, and the other vicious.
What organs are we disposed to exercise most?
Those which are largest. Little gratification is exper-
ienced in the exercise of the weaker faculties : thus, a man
who is not at all combative, would feel exceedingly annoyed
at the idea of being obliged to fight ; while another, with a
different configuration of brain would feel delight in having
an opportunity of indulging his favourite propensity. Nor
is this law confined to the cerebral organs : a man of great
muscular power is fond of hard exercise ; another of little
physical energy dislikes it, and is partial to rest.
Are thehabitual attitude, expression^ and language affected
by the predominating organs f
They generally are. -It is seldom difl&cult to detect by
his air, carriage, and conversation, when a man is proud, vain,
bold, timid, or, crafty. These indications are called natural
language, or pathognomy. Some persons deny its existence.
When, however, we remind them that sighing, sobbing, and
groaning are the natural language of grief ; laughter of mirth ;
cursing and stamping with the foot of rage ; and trembling,
paleness, and speechlessness of fear, they will see the absur-
dity of their denial. The existence of pathognomy, as con-
nected with many of the facultifes, is too obvious to require
demonstration, and every man who has paid attention to
the subject must admit it. By painters and actors it is ac-
knowledged to the fullest extent. Who does not at once
20 In many animals, however, we can draw no inference by looking at the
head merely. In the elephant, for instance, an immense cavity or sinus in-
tervenes betwixt the brain and the outer table of the skull.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 39
recognize the strut of pride, the smirk of vanity, the compressed ;
lip and energetic step of firmness, the stealthy glance of cun-
ning, the upraised eye and lip of wonder, the bland expression |
and kindly tone of benevolence, the looks raised to heaven, |
the clasped hands, and bended knees of veneration ! i
Of how many organs does the brain consist?
It must consist of as many as there are primitive mental
faculties. At present, phrenologists admit about thirty as
distinctly established ; others they speak of as probable; but
these are not to be regarded as constituting the whole series.
There are portions of the base of the brain whose functions
are yet to be discovered.
Are the organs single or double ?
As the brain is double, so is every organ ; each has its
fellow on the opposite side. There are thus, strictly speak-
ing, about sixty organs ascertained, but as an organ on one
side co-operates ivith its fellow on the other, it is customary
to speak of the two as one, seeing that they manifest only a
single mental quality.
May the brain be wounded or diseased on one side, and
yet none of the mental faculties suspended ?
Undoubtedly. If the organ of Tune, for instance, is injured
on one side, its fellow on the other not being impaired, the
faculty will continue to be manifested, although, as is natural
to suppose, with less vigour than when both organs were
perfectly sound ; and the same law holds with regard to all
the other organs, just as a person can still hear tolerably
well with one ear, although the sense is quite lost in the other.
But injury, of one side of the brain generally affects the
other sympathetically ; although the fact that it some-
times does not, and that the faculties go on not much im-
paired, is a sufficient proof both that there is a plurality of
organs, and that the organs are double.^i
21 Careless observers often bring it as an argument against Phrenology
40 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
Are we always to expect a prominence or bump when a
particular organ is large f
No. If several adjoining organs are all large, none of
them will, probably, present any particular projection : there
will be merely a general fulness in the locality occupied by
them. It is only when an organ decidedly predominates
over those in its immediate vicinity, that a protuberance is
to be looked for. An inexperienced phrenologist has much
difficulty in estimating the size of organs, w^here there is
that in cases of diseased brain, the mind is not at all aflFected, when some of
its functions are in reality materially disordered. They perceive that the
person, in common matters, acts perfectly well, that he answers questions
intelligibly, and hence they conclude that every faculty is entire; whereas,
if they were to investigate the matter more fully, and task the diflFerent
organs severely, they would perceive in the manifestations of some of them
a considerable falling off. The above argument, supposing it to be valid,
would only go to prove that the mind has no connexion with the brain, a
proposition so absurd tliat no sane intellect can now for a moment entertain
it ; but why should the argument bear more against Phrenology, which
teaches that each faculty of the mind is manifested by a particular part of the
brain, than against the opposite doctrine that the whole brain is concerned in
the manifestation of each faculty ? Cases of extensive disease of the lungs
and liver are occasionally met with, where respiration and the biliary secre-
tion are very little affected. In the number for July, 1833, of the Glasgow
Medical Journal, we are told of a case in the Stilling Dispensary where
six pounds of fluid were found in the right cavity of the chest, compressing
the corresponding lung into a mere membrane, a fourth of an inch in thick-
ness ; and yet during life, breathing, though a little hurried, appeared to be
fully and perfectly performed, and the man had no symptoms which indi-
cated in the most remote degree the existence of thoracic disease. What
would we think if, from such a case, it was attempted to be inferred that the
lungs were not the organs of respiration. Admirably in this instance as the
sound lung supplied the part of the diseased one, still it is not to be inferred
that the respiratory apparatus was capable of sustaining the same effort as
in perfect health. For ordinary breathing it sufficed almost perfectly, but
had the person attempted running or any other violent exercise, its inade-
quacy would then have appeared sufficiently manifest. The same remark
applies to the brain. In injuries thereof, when the intellect is said not
to suffer, we must ascertain whether the part injured is really connected
with the intellect. It may appertain to the propensities or sentiments, in
which case the intellectual powers may not suffer, although the injury is
GENERAL PRINCIPLES, 41
uniformity of surface, and is hence apt to deny the possi-
bility of practically following up the science; but one who
has sufficiently studied it feels no such difficulty. He esti-
mates the dimensions of the organs correctly, although
there is not the slightest bulging out of any particular part
beyond those in its vicinity ; but this requires considerable
experience, and is not to be learned all at once.
Does Phrenology admit of exceptions ?
It does not. A single exception would entirely overthrow
whatever part of the phrenological doctrine it should be at
variance with. When an apparent exception does occur,
it must be attributed to ignorance on the part of the ob-
server, or to a want of health in the brain. Taking man-
kind in the mass, a skilful phrenologist will infer character
with great accuracy in nineteen cases out of twenty. It is
not pretended, however, that practical Phrenology has yet
attained to perfection.22
How are the faculties classified?
The faculties are divided into two orders — the Feelings,
22 The reputation of Phrenology has been often endangered by the abor-
tive attempts of ignorant pretenders to infer character from examination of
the head. Before this can be done properly, not only much experience, but
a good share of tact and analytical talent are necessary." There are two risks
to be encountered, that of estimating erroneously the size of the different
organs, and that of drawing faulty conclusions from the estimate, even sup-
posing it to be true. Spurzheim was strongly opposed to the practice, now
so much in vogue, of indiscriminately inferring character from examination
of the head. Where the character is a marked one, the science may be
benefited by observing how far the talents and dispositions correspond with
the form of brain possessed by the individual ; but how seldom is it that we
meet with marked characters ! These observations are the more necessary,
as there are a set of phrenological quacks, who, on all occasions, undertake
to tell the character of any person, however common.place. Such preten.
ders naturally fall into errors, and an outcry is immediately raised that
Phrenology is false. With the same reason might it be said, that there is
no truth in Davy's allegation that the alkalies possess metallic bases, be-
cause the fact could not be demonstrated experimentally by some bungler
42 GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
or Affective Faculties, and the Intellect. These,
ag-ain, are divided into Genera — the Feelings into the
Propensities and Sentiments, and the Intellect into the
Perceptive and Reflective Faculties. This arrangement is
not unobjectionable, but in the present state of our know-
ledge, a perfectly accurate classification of the faculties
cannot be attained.
ORDER I.-FEELINGS OR AFFECTIVE
What are the feeling Sy or affective faculties?
They may be described simply as those faculties which
give rise to affections or emotions, and which neither know
nor reason. They are, in themselves, mere blind impulses,
and unless governed by the intellect are apt to run into the
grossest abuses. Thus Destructiveness, without such guidance,
may lead to indiscriminate violence and massacre, Venera-
tion to the worshipping of images instead of the true God,
Adhesiveness to attachment to worthless characters, Self-
Esteem to exorbitant pride, and Love of Approbation to
overweening and ridiculous vanity.
GENUS I. — PROPENSITIES.
What is a propensity ?
The term Propensity, is applied by Dr. Spurzheim, to
those affective faculties which produce only desires or inclina-
tions, and which likewise prompt to certain corresponding
modes of action. The classification of the faculties, however,
is not altogether in accordance with this definition.
Where is this organ situated, and what is its function?
The cerebellum, or little brain, which lies in the lower and
posterior portion of the skull, immediately under the cere-
brum, or brain proper, and behind the top of the spinal
marrow is the seat of the amative propensity. This point
is now universally admitted by physiologists, and is sup-
ported by so many facts that it can no longer be doubtful .
The effects of cerebellar disease in calling the sexual feeling
into vehement action, demonstrate conclusively that the
latter has its seat in the particular part of brain alluded
to. The great purpose served by Amativeness is the con-
tinuance of the species.23
W7iat extei'nal indications are presented when the organ
is very large ?
There is much fulness at the back and lower part of the
head, an unusual distance between the mastoid processes,^*
and great thickness of the neck. Subjoined is an engraving
of the Emperor Caracalla's head, in which the rotundity and
thickness of neck, and its extent backwards from the ear
will be observed. It represents a very great development
of the organ in question.
23 The circumstances which led Dr. Gall to the discovery of the organ
are curious, and are fully detailed in his own great work, and in the writ-
ings of Dr. Spurzheim.
24 Those hard prominences immediately behind, and at the root of
Is the organ larger in men than in the other sex ?
It is so in most cases. Women in whom it is large,
are more easily seduced than those with a small de-
velopment : it is generally very full in those unfortunate
females who walk the streets, and gain a livelihood by
prostitution. In what are called " ladies' men" the organ
is small. These individuals feel tov/ards women precisely
as they would to one of their own sex. Women intuitively
know this, and acquire a kind of easy familiarity with them
which they do not attain with men of a warmer com-
In what state is the organ at different periods of life ?
In childhood it is very small, not only absolutely but
relatively. At birth, the cerbellum to the rest of the brain
is as 1 to 13, 15, or 20. In adults as 1 to 6, 7, or 8. In
some, however, it is much less. The organ increases rapidly
on the approach of manhood, and at this period, dull pains
are often experienced in the site of it. In old age, it
diminishes, like the rest of the brain, but in a greater ratio.^^
25 Ladies' men hare small heads. Self-Esteem is usually small, and Lore
of Approbation well developed. A large brain, especially if Self-Esteem is
also large, unfits a man for performing the character successfully.
26 "By the kindness " of Baron Larrey, says Dr. Gall, "I saw a soldier
whose antipathy to women degenerated into perfect madness. The sight of
a woman threw him into fits and rendered him almost furious. Dr. Spur-
zheim has seen a similar circumstance in England. In each of these indivi-
duals the cerebellum was exceedingly small. A physician of Vienna, whose
talents were of a high order, showed a marked antipathy to women, a
peculiarity which, at the time, we attributed to his loye of solitude. Some
years afterwards he died of phthisis, and, in his otherwise large head, the
space appropriated for the cerebellum was extremely small. The distance
from one mastoid process to the other was scarcely three inches : the occipital
cavities instead of bulging out were partly quite flat, partly even depressed."
" It has been objected that an organ cannot produce an effect opposite" to
that of its functions ; but is not the stomach the organ of appetite and does
it not sometimes happen that, in consequence of a weak state of this viscus,
we have a disgust at any kind of food ? "
When does the organ attain its full sizef
In the male, between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six;
in the female a little earlier. Young lads are generally
indifferent about female society, and young girls about that
of men. As the organ in question, enlarges, a change is
produced in the feelings of the two sexes, and they become
fond of associating with each other. Women with small
Amativeness and large Adhesiveness prefer the society of
their own sex to that of men. To the latter their manners
seem passionless and frigid ; and even when gifted with
beauty, they are felt by the opposite sex to be far less inter-
esting than women to whom nature has granted fewer charms
of person but a different cerebral conformation.
What does celibacy generally result from ?
In general, from a small development of this organ, with
moderate Adhesiveness and Philoprogenitiveness. Persons
so constituted, even although they can conveniently do so,
rareh' marry. Judging from the portraits of Kant, Newton,
and Charles XII., the organ of Amativeness seems to have
been small in the heads of these illustrious men, and the
strength of the faculty is understood to have been in keep-
ing with this feeble development. The same remark applies
to the Right Hon. William Pitt.s?
Is there any thing particular in the action cf this organ,
as respects the inferior animals ?
There is. In most of them it is periodically excited;
being at other times in a great measure inactive.
27 " Some opponents of tlie phrenological doctrine affirm, that physical
loye has been found very strong in individuals who have possessed a very
small cerebellum, or in whom that organ was more or less completely des-
troyed. I am doubtful how far facts of this kind merit confidence. As for
myself, I declare that I cannot admit them until they shall have been seen
by phrenologists; we must look with particular caution on facts which are
only witnessed by the enemies of a system, especially when we know to
what lengths designing persons are capable of pushing their falsehoods." —
Describe the locality of this organ.
It lies immediately above Amativeness, in the middle of
the occiput, and, when large, gives a drooping appearance
to the back of the head, which projects much, and hangs,
as it were, over the neck. A large development of the
organ is shown in the following sketch.
What is its function?
To bestow an ardent attachment to offspring, and children
in general; and, according to some phrenologists, to weak
and tender animals.
In which sex is it larger f
In the female; and this law extends to the lower animals
as well as to our own race. Boys exhibit little of it; the
case is different with little girls, who show its activity in
their fondness for dolls, and in their desire to carry children
in their arms, even when they can scarcely stand under
their weight. Mary Wolstoncroft denies that girls have, by
nature, a greater fondness for dolls than boys, ascribing the
difference to education; but she is clearly mistaken, inas-
much as the organ on which the love of young depends, is
decidedly larger in the female head than in the male. The
fondness of unmarried women, or married women who are
childless, for cats and lap-dogs, seems to depend chiefly
upon this organ.
In which of the lower animals is it peculiarly large f
In the monkey tribe, whose affection for their young is
quite remarkable. It was the size of the organ in these
creatures, coupled with their love of offspring, which led
Dr. Gall to suspect the faculty to be connected with this
portion of the brain.
Do all animals display love of offspring f
No. The cuckoo (both male and female) abandons its
offspring, and leaves them to be brought up by other birds.
Many male animals take no charge whatever of their young,
w^hile others do so conjointly with the females. Such is the
case with the fox, the wolf, the roebuck, the rabbit, and
Does love of children not rather proceed from general
No; for persons who have little of this virtue are often
passionately fond of children, and others who have a great
deal of it care not for their society. The most ferocious
savages are often extremely affectionate towards their
children. Burke the murderer had a large development
of this organ, and was very fond of children, and beloved
by them in return.
What is the result of a small development?
Indifference to children. It is a great evil when a mother
is so constituted; for, however estimable she may otherwise
be, she will find the rearing of her offspring a toil rather
than a pleasure; and, unless her conscientiousness and pru-
dence be great, she will be very apt to neglect them. No
woman will make a good nurse unless well endowed with
this organ. Women who commit infanticide have generally
a small development, ^s
What is the result of a great development?
An ardent love of children. The person delights to take
them on his knee, to kiss them, to relate stories to them, to
play with them, &c. Some of the sternest minds and great-
est heroes have been distinguished for the strength of this
feeling. Agesilaus, the warlike monarch of Sparta, used to
ride on a stick to please his children. On one occasion,
King Henry IV. of France was seen galloping on all fours,
one of his children on his back, and the other flogging him
v/ith a whip. The passion must have been very strong in
these illustrious men. Children have an intuitive know-
28 Dr. Sparzheim has examined- thirty-seven child-murderers, and in
thirty of them the organ of Philoprogenitiveness was very small. " In
women," says he, " as well as in the females of animals, this propensity has
different degrees of energy. Certain cows do not suffer their calves to suck ;
some pigs, cats, rabbits, &c. kill their young, while other females of the
same kind of animals cry for several days, and refuse to eat, Avhen they are
bereft of their offspring. It is a lamentable truth that this difference of
motherly love exists also in mankind. All women do not desire to become
mothers; some consider their pregnancy as the greatest misfortune.
Several mothers seek various pretexts in order to remove their children
out of the house. There are others who, being freed from shame, reproach,
misery, and many inconveniences, by the loss of their illegitimate children,
yet shed tears for a long time after, at the remembrance cf them. Others,
on the contrary, see their legitimate offspring buried without a pang.
Thus, it is beyond doubt that natural love of offspring is very weak in
some women. It is, therefore, wrong to believe that infanticide is a more
unnatural act than any other murder." — View of the Elementary Principles
of Education, 2d edit. p. 319.
ledge of persons in whom this organ is large, and come
to them, as it were, instinctively. ^9
What are the abuses likely to result from too great a
development of Philoprogenitiveness ?
If the feeling be excessive, and not regulated by the in-
fluence of other faculties, the children will be apt to get
spoiled, and become pert, noisy, unmannerly, and self-willed,
Philoprogenitiveness sometimes becomes diseased, and then
there is the most violent love of offspring, with overwhelm-
ing grief, often terminating in madness, at their loss.
Where is Concentrativeness situated ?
It lies immediately above Philoprogenitiveness, and be-
What purpose is served hy this organ?
It is believed by the leading Scotch phrenologists to be
the seat of that power which enables us to direct the in-
tellect continsously to a particular subject of thought.
Persons with a large endowment are not apt to be distracted
from what they are engaged in, by the intrusion of extrane-
ous ideas. When the organ is disproportionately large or
active, absence of mind, or abstraction, is the result.
When deficient., what is the consequence f
The individual is remarkable for great volatility of manner,
and extreme difficulty in directing his mind, for a length of
time, towards any one subject. He is continually flying
29 Dr. Gall justly observes, that if in men who have an ardent love
of children, "the organ of Amativeness is feebly developed, they con-
sole themselves for the loss of a beloved spouse with a resignation which
appears very philosophical, while the death of a child plunges them into
long-continued and inconsolable grief. The barrenness of their wives dis-
tresses them exceedingly, and often leads them to treat with coldness,
women who are otherwise unexceptionable."
from topic to topic, and finds it almost impossible to pursue
a continued train of investigation. Scatter-brained, flighty-
people, are all deficient in Concentrativeness. Good abilities
may exist, however, along with this deficiency, but in such
a case they are deprived of half their usefulness and effect.
Has it the same power over all the faculties ?
Probably not ; it appears to act more influentially on
some than on others. I conceive, that the faculties con-
cerned in reasoning and calculation, are, in an especial
manner, governed by it ; hence metaphysicians, mathemati-
cians, &c., are peculiarly subject to mental absence.
Are phrenologists agreed on the functions of this organ?
No. Dr. Spurzheim conceived it to be the source of
attachment to particular places; hence he called it Inhabi-
tiveness.30 He never coincided with the views of the
Scotch phrenologists, and by both parties the subject is left
open for farther investigation.
Mention a few authors whose writings are distinguished
Campbell, Pope, and Byron, all display a vigorous con-
centration of thought and style. In Scott, Coleridge, and
Southey, there is much less. We may infer (supposing us
to have properly localised this faculty) a great development
of the organ of Concentrativeness in such men as Tacitus,
Thucydides, Reid, Locke, and Brown, and less in Dugald
30 Amor patrice was supposed by Dr. Spurzheim to result from Inhabi-
tiveness, but I haA'e never been able to see, that one organ is necessary to
give attachment to places, and another to give attachment to persons. The
question has often been asked, Why are mountaineers more ardent patriots
than the inhabitants of the plains ? Supposing the fact to be true, we are
not justified in inferring, that the former are patriots merely because they
happen to be mountaineers; for the real cause maybe, that they are secluded,
and have little opportunity of getting their views expanded into cosmopoli-
tanism. The more the intellect is enlightened, the less vivid does that
ardent attachment to one's natale solum, which often constitutes patriotism,
become. Savasres are the most attached to their native land.
Stewart and Beattie. Archimedes, Newton, and Adara
Smith, must have possessed the faculty in vast energy.
Describe the situation and function of this organ.
It lies at each side of, and rather above, Philoprogeni-
tiveness, and is that portion of the brain with which the
feeling of attachment is connected. No faculty, save Des-
tructiveness, is displayed more early than this: it is exhibited
even by the infant in the nurse's arms. When very strong,
it gives ardent strength of attachmeirt and warmth of friend-
Does this faculty constitute love ?
Not strictly speaking; for love, in the legitimate sense of
the word, is a compound of Amativeness and Adhesiveness.
Such is the love which the lover bears to his mistress, and
the husband to his young wife. The attachment of a parent
to his child, or of a brother to his sister, is not, in reality,
love, but strong Adhesiveness — powerfully aided, in the
former case, by Philoprogenitiveness.
Is this faculty more energetic in men or women ?
Generally in the latter ;3^ although in men there are not
31 " Women are generally more devoted to their friends than men, and
display an indefatigable activity in serving them. Whoever has gained
the affection of a woman is sure to succeed in any enterprise wherein she
assists him : men draw back much sooner in such cases. Frequently in my
life, have I had occasion to admire in females the most generous zeal on
behalf of their friends. Who is not astonished at the courage shown by a
woman when her husband, whose misconduct has perhaps a thousand times
offended her, is threatened with imminent danger? Who does not know
many instances of the most heroic devotedness on the part of the sex ? A
woman spares no effort to serve her friend When it is a question of saving
her brother, her husband, her father, she penetrates into 'prisons— she
throws herself at the feet of her sovereign. Such are the women of our
day, and such has history represented those of antiquity. Happy, I repeat,
is he who has a woman for a friend! " — Gall.
wanting instances of tiie most violent attachments, even
towards their own sex. Such is represented to have been
the case with Pylades and Orestes, and with Damon and
Pythias, whose attachment to each other (the result of
excessive Adhesiveness) defied even death itself. What
beautiful pictures of friendship between men, have been
drawn by Homer, by Virgil, and by the sacred writers, in
the instances of Achilles and Patroclus, of Nisus and
Euryalus, and of Jonathan and David !
Can this faculty co-exist with small Benevolence ?
Facts prove that it may. Robbers and murderers some-
times display such wonderful attachment to each other, that
even the rack has failed to extort from them the names of
their accomplices in crime. Mary M'Innes, who was exe-
cuted for murder, had a large development of this organ,
and displayed its function with great energy on the scaffold.
Friendship, however, is destitute of much of its lustre, when
the moral and intellectual sentiments have not the predomi-
nance in the mind. A warm friend may then easily be
converted into a mischievous foe.
Is it subject to abuse ?
Very frequently it is so. Young women, and sometimes
young men, are apt to form absurd and romantic attach-
ments to each other, which, however, being based upon an
unnatural state of excitement in the organ of Adhesiveness,
necessarily terminate so soon as the excitement ends; and
thus, unless there are eminent moral qualities to ensure
permanence, the feeling is seldom of long duration. When
a coldness once takes place, mutual antipathy often follows,
and the quondam friends become bitter enemies. People
labouring under the strong influence of this organ, are often
incapable of perceiving any thing like blemish in their
friends. They clothe them with the attributes of perfection,
and employ the most extravagant terms of praise when
speaking of them to others. Clanship, when improperly
directed, and attachment to worthless characters, are abuses
of the faculty.
What is the natural language of Adhesiveness f
There is a tendency to turn the head, in the direction of
the organ, towards the object to whom we are attached.
Young girls may be seen coming from school with their
arms thrown over each other's neck, and the sides of the
head meeting just at the seat of this organ. A mother
fondling her child, turns the side of her head towards it.
Two lovers taking a walk arm in arm, incline the head
mutually in the same way.
Where is this organ situated?
Between the mastoid process and the organs of Philopro-
genitiveness and Adhesiveness. It corresponds to the in-
ferior angle of the parietal bone, and lies immediately
behind, and on a level with, the top of the ear.
In what manner does the faculty manifest itself?
In a love of opposition and strife. It gives boldness to
the character. The combative man loves danger, meets it
fearlessly, and triumphs over difficulties, which would over-
whelm a person in whom the organ was feebly developed.
In what class of men is the organ large ?
It is invariably large in great heroes, in determined prize-
fighters, and in men any way remarkable for active courage.
The gladiators of Rome must have been largely endowed with
it. 32 It is remarkably prominent in the skulls of King Robert
Bruce and General Wurmser who were both pre-eminent
32 The statues of the gladiators display an ample bulging out in the seat of
the organ — a proof that the ancients recognized great courage to exist in com-
bination with a particular form of head. This, of itself, is a striking evidence
of the correctness of the locality assigned to the organ by phrenologists.
for valour. It was very large in the head of the French
General Lamarque, whose courage was remarkable, and
appears greatly developed in the likenesses of Duguesclin,
another French warrior, distinguished for his extraordinary
valour. In the skull of Robert Burns it is very large;
which accounts, in some measure, for his controversial pro-
pensities. It was amply developed in Dr. Gall who pos-
sessed, in a great degree, the quality of personal courage.
The character of Balfour of Burley, as delineated in
" Old Mortality," is a remarkable instance of Combative-
ness, Destructiveness, and Firmness, all greatly developed.
The same remark applies to the character of Charles the
Bold, as displayed in " Quentin Durward." The history of
Murat, and of Marshal Ney, " the bravest of the brave,"
presents in great perfection the picture of excessive Com-
bativeness. The organ, when large, is easily discriminated.
If we compare such a head as that of Duguesclin, in the
above engraving, with that of a person who dislikes fight-
ing or contention, a marked difference of shape will be per-
ceived in the position of the organ.
Is a man with much Combativeness necessarily addicted
to fighting or other varieties of contention?
Such is the natural tendency of his mind, although, in
common circumstances, he may, by means of other faculties,
keep this one sufficiently under restraint. If Destructive-
ness is moderate and Benevolence large, some kind of
harmless contention will be preferred. The former organ,
however, is very generally large when Combativeness is
Are all nations equally endowed with this faculty ?
No. The organ is small in the Hindoo and Peruvian
heads, and exceedingly large in the Carib; and the dispo-
sitions of these nations are in perfect accordance with their
respective developments — the two former being mild and
unwarlikcy the latter immoderately fond of fighting.
What happens when the organ is too large, or not suffix
ciently controlled by others ?
The consequences are lamentable. The individual is for
ever engaged in quarrels and getting himself involved in
difficulties, from his ungovernable love of contentiouo Should
Destructiveness be also full, he is very apt to strike on any
occasion in which he may be offended. " A word and a
blow " is his favourite maxim. He is a profound admirer of
the argumentum ad hominem.
What is the result when the organ is very small f
In such a case, the person abhors strife and competition of
every kind, and purposely avoids them. His temper may be
warm, but he will seldom have courage to display it in the
form of blows.
Js Combativeness a useful faculty ?
It is eminently so, by conferring determination and intre-
pidity of character. " Courage," says Dr. Johnson, " is a.
quality so necessary for maintaining virtue, that it is always
respected, even when it is associated with vice."
Are the consequences of a large development as strongly
marked in the lower animals as in man ?
They are. The poodle, the pointer, and the spaniel have
the organ small, the bull dog and the mastiff large; and the
dispositions of the animals correspond. " Dogs," observes
Dr. Gall, " that cannot be trained for fighting, have the
head narrow above, and a little behind the ears; while those
possessed of much courage are large in this region." In the
heads of the two dogs represented in the section on Benevo-
lence, the difference of size in the region of Combativeness
is very apparent. Cock-fighters and pigeon-fanciers know
from experience, that a particular formation of head in these
birds is connected with courage, and another with cowardice.
This difference exists in the region of Combativenes.
What quality results from this organ ?
The passion to destroy, and the propensity to inflict pain,
uneasiness, and injury in general. When uncontrolled by
Benevolence it prompts to unmitigated cruelty, and the person
is fierce, passionate, revengeful, and ferocious. When so
controlled, there is merely much warmth of feeling, irascibility
without cruelty, and a tendency to be severe on proper
How is a large Destructiveness known f
By a considerable and rounded fulness above the opening
of the ear, and by width of head at that part. Those
whose heads are fiat in this situation, and narrow above the
ears, are never destructive. When the external opening of
the ear is placed very low, it is one sign of large Destructive-
ness. The skull delineated in the engraving exhibits a
remarkably large development of this organ. It belonged
to an incorrigible female thief, of whom Dr. Gall observes,
that a case will never be met with, in which the organs,
whose abuse leads to theft, to cunning, and to murder, are
more amply developed.
How was the organ first ascertained ?
Dr. Gall first noticed it by observing the difference at
this particular situation, between the heads of carnivorous
and graminivorous animals. In the former the quantity of
brain in the region of Destructiveness is great; in the latter
When does Destructiveness first display itself?
At the moment of birth. The angry cries of the new-
born child are manifestations of the faculty .^^
Does a large development communicate any particular
character to the manner and expression ?
Yes : destructive people have generally a sharp, sparkling
33 All carnivorous animals are necessarily destructive. Some of them,
such as the wolf, the fox, the bear, and the lion, kill only to procure food,
others from a mere blind pleasure in killing, as is the case with the tiger,
the hyena, the pole-cat, the marten, and the weasel.
34 An irritable frame is favourable to the activity of Destructiveness j
hence the frequent ebullitions of temper displayed during the reign of child-
hood, and also by grown people who labour under bad health. " No man,"
says Lord Bacon, " is angry, who feels not himself hurt : and, therefore, deli-
eate and tender persons must needs be often angry, they have so many things
1o trouble them, which more robust natures have little sense of."
eye, a loud and often cutting voice, quickness of movement,
and energy of character. When engaged in disputation,
they are apt to get fierce and animated, striking the table,
as if to enforce their positions, and speaking in a loud and
irritated manner. ^5
In what class of persons may a large development be ex-
Distinguished warriors, duellists, sportsmen, and boxers,
and severe and sarcastic polemics must be well endowed
with the organ; so must surgeons who are passionately fond
of operations, and men who, from choice, follow the trade
of a butcher. In such men as Knox and Luther, it, iu
combination with Combativeness, must have been large.
It was very large in the head of King Robert Bruce. It
prompts and gives keenness to satire, and is very perceptible in
the style of such writers as Pope, Burns, Byron, Swift, and
Smollett. In the heads of the murderers Hare, Burke, and
Bellingham, it was large, and it must have been excessive in
those of Nero, Caligula, Marat, Danton, and Robespierre, ^s
May a virtuous man have this organ as largely developed
as a murderer?
He may undoubtedly, but in him there are other faculties
which keep it in check, and prevent the display of its more
violent manifestations ; the murderer has no such restraints.
35 The frequent indulgence in Destructiveness gives coarseness of man-
ners. " Whence," as Lord Kaimes inquires, " the rough and harsh manners
of our West India planters, but from the unrestrained license of venting;
ill-humour upon their negro slaves ?"
36 Calvin, who burned Servetus over a slow lire, for differing with him ou
a point of theology, must have had a large endowment of this organ. Both
Combativeness and Destructiveness appear very large in the portraits of
Bonner, Bishop of London, a man of violent charater, and coarse both in his
manners and language, and who, during the reign of the " Bloody " Mary,
consigned to the flames no fewer than 200 individuals for their religious
opinions. Caliban, in Shakspeare's play of " The Tempest," is an incar.
nation of pure Destructiveness.
The late Dr. Gregory, and Mr. Abernethy, the distinguished
and eccentric surgeon, had probably as great a development
of Destructiveness, absolutely speaking, as Bellingbam; but
in them it was controlled by energetic moral and intellectual
faculties ; while the miserable assassin of Perceval being
wofuUy deficient in these, was left to the unbridled sway of
; his lower propensities, and revelled in vice. Thus, although
I the positive size of Destructiveness may not have been greater
in him than in them, yet its relative magnitude in proportion
I to the organs of the moral feelings, was infinitely greater,
i and hence the criminal tendencies of his depraved mind.
How do you reconcile the good endowment of Benevolence
possessed hy Thurtell, icith his character as a murderer ?
Thurtell frequently showed traits of benevolent feeling,
and was, on this account, rather popular with his associates.
His Benevolence, however, was no match for the excited
energy of his great.Destructiveness, and other animal pro-
pensities ; and a phrenologist, on examining his head, so far
from inferring it to be that of an amiable or virtuous char-
acter would conclude that it belonged to one strongly
addicted to low indulgences, and, when in a state of excite-
ment, to acts of violent outrage. When the propensities
were not in this excited condition, he would manifest good-
nature and benevolence, and the annals of his life show that
he was very capable of kind actions.^'^ It is Phrenology alone
37 Some people foolishly imagine, that when a man is hanged for taking
away life, he must needs be totally destitute of Benevolence; not reflecting
that people are always governed by the strongest motives, and that if, in
an unhappy moment, Destructiveness is so furiously excited, as to over-
power the counteracting effect of Benevolence, it must lead to violent, and
frequently fatal, results. Had Thurtell possessed a very poor develop-
ment of Benevolence, his head would have afforded a strong argument that
phrenologists were in error respecting the locality of this organ, in so far
as, in accordance with such a development, his whole actions should»*ave
been characterized by a destitution of benevolent feeling, which was very
far from being the case. Moir, who was executed for shooting, in a fit of
which can explain these apparent anomalies of character.
Men of far higher moral powers than Thurtell, have been
hanged for murder, committed in a moment of violent passion,
under the influence of a provoked and ungovernable De-
Mention a few modes in which ihe feeling manifests itself.
It is shown in a love of hunting, rat-killing, dog-fighting,
violent passion, a fisherman who had grossly insulted and outraged him,
was understood to be a very benevolent man, when his ungovernable tem.
per was not roused into activity. It would be absurd to expect, in such a
head, a small organ of Benevolence, and yet he was hanged for murder.
A man was executed in Glasgow, a few years ago, for stabbing a person by
whom he was overpowered, in a fight which took place between them when
half drunk. This man's previous character was not only fair, but excel-
lent. Mackean, who was hanged at Glasgow for the murder of the Lanark
carrier, had a pretty fair Benevolence, and, till the commission of this
crime, his character displayed traits of the feeling, and was not considered
very bad. He perpetrated the deed in a momentary fit of rage, and his
Destructiveness was such as would prompt to violence under provocation.
Had Benevolence been small, the general tenor of his life would have indi-
cated its feeble influence, but such was not the case. A good development
of this organ, with preponderating Destructiveness and Combativeness,
deficient Conscientiousness, and a poor intellect, especially if the person
moves in depraved society, and is addicted to drinking, will not secure him
against the commission of gross violence, and, under certain circumstances,
of murder itself.
38 Peter the Great was a striking illustration of Benevolence and Des-
tructiveness — of kindness and cruelty in combination. " Owing to the cir-
cumstances in which he was placed, and the determination to execute the
plan he had conceived of remodelling the customs and institutions of his
country, he had to maintain a constant struggle between his good and evil
genius. Nothing was toogreat, nothing too little for his comprehensive
mind. The noblest undertakings were mixed with the most farcical amuse-
ments; the most laudable institutions for the benefit of his subjects were
followed by shaving their beards and docking their skirts. Kind-hearted,
benevolent, and humane, he set no value on human life. Owing to these,
and many other incongruities, his character has necessarily been represented
in various points of view, and in various colours by his biographers."
" His memory among his countrymen, who ought to be the best judges, and
of whom he was at once the scourge and the benefactor, is held in the
highest veneration." — Family Library.
and attending public executions. It is told of La Condamine,
that on one occasion, when he was making eiForts to pene-
trate the crowd assembled to witness an execution, and was
pushed back by the soldiers, the executioner said, "Let
the gentleman pass, he is an amateur." The mischievous
habit of breaking windows, gates, posts, and trees, so common
in this country, is a manifestation of the faculty: so is the
common and atrocious crime of fire-raising. A passionate
child kicks the stool over which it stumbled : this simple act
proceeds from Destructiveness. People who indulge in abuse
are all destructive. Cursing and swearing are displays of
the propensity. Xantippe, the wife of Socrates, was highly
destructive, so was Catherine, in the comedj^ of " The
Taming of the Shrew," and so is the whole family of scolds
and termagants. Clergymen who address themselves much
to the fears of their audience, and dwell strongly upon the
terrors of future punishment, have this organ large.
Is Destructiveness often violently roused ?
No organ is so frequently in a state of excitation. You
cannot cross the street, or sit an hour in the company of
people of different religious or political sentiments, without
seeing it called into action. If you behold a cat pouncing
upon a mouse, or two dogs growling at each other about a
bone, you have an instance of the faculty being at work.
Homicidal monomania, or the irresistible desire to murder,
is the effect of a diseased excitement of Destructiveness, and
many miserable lunatics have perished on the scaffold, for
homicides committed under its influence. Great ignorance
prevails among judges and juries with regard to this subject.39
39 I saw a man, named Papavoine, guillotined at Paris, ml 825, for murder.
On reading his trial, I was strongly impressed with the idea that the crime
was committed under the influence of insanity, and that the man ought not
to have been put to death. This view of the case has been since adopted in
works on insanity, and is now admitted to be sound. The same year, I
Are destructive people necessarily brave ?
No. They are often great cowards when brought to face
real danger. Valour depends upon Combativeness, and
destructive people have often little of this quality. At the
same time, Destructiveness sharpens Combativeness, and
adds much to its energy on the field of battle. Firmness
gives endurance to both these faculties, and prevents them
from rapidly exhausting themselves.^o
What results from a want of Destructiveness?
The mind is deficient in fire and edge, and in that degree
of severity which is of great use in the business of life.
witnessed at Versailles, the decapitation of a miserable wretch, convicted
of murdering, and of afterwards eating the flesh of his victim — a young girl,
against whom he entertained no animosity whatever. When apprehended,
he had plenty of money upon him, a proof that he was not impelled by
want. He could assign no motive for the dreadful act, but an insatiable
desire to eat human flesh. Gaulius speaks of a man who had a similar
passion, and who, to gratify it, committed many murders. His daughter,
though separated from him, and well brought up, yielded to the same hor-
rible desire, and became also a cannibal. " At the commencement of the last
century," says Spurzheim, "many murders were committed in Holland,
upon the frontiers of Cleves. The author of these crimes was, for a long
time, unknown, but at last an old musician, who was in the habit of play-
ing the violin at all the weddings in the neighbourhood, was suspected, in
consequence of some remarks which escaped his children. Being brought
before a magistrate, he acknowledged thirty-four murders, and declared
that he committed them without animosity, orwishto rob, but simply because
he felt therein an extraordinary degree of pleasure." The whole of these
persons were, unquestionably, monomaniacs.
40 A man is met on the highway by a robber, who presents a pistol to his
breast, and demands his money. If the man is greatly endowed with Firm-
ness, but deficient in Combativeness, he will sternly refuse to surrender his
purse, but do nothing more. If he possesses, along with Firmness, a great
deal of Combativeness, he will be inclined to rush forward, and wrench
the weapon from the hand of his assailant Here the function of Com-
bativeness Avill cease ; but supposing the individaal to be largely endowed
with Destructiveness also, he will endeavour to knock the aggressor down,
to punish him with severity, and perhaps kill him on the spot. In most per-
sons, Destructiveness is large enough to give rise to such manifestations in
the circumstances supposed.
What is meant by this term ?
Alimentiveness is the name applied to one of tlie organs,
not yet regarded as fully ascertained : it is supposed to be
connected with the desire for food. In the bust, it bears no
number, but is marked f ; it lies in front of, and a little above,
the opening of the ear. Farther observations are necessary,
to determine finally whether the function assigned to this
part of the brain be correct ; but many facts render this
How does it display itself when very large?
It is supposed to do so in an inordinate fondness for indulg-
ing in the pleasures of the table. If this belief is correct,
gluttons and epicures ought to be well endowed with the
organ, and probably drunkards also. Indeed, Dr. Caldwell
of Lexington, in his ingenious *' Thoughts on Intemper-
ance,"'*^ conceives the habit of drunkenness to depend upon
a highly excited state of this organ, and proposes to cure it by
means of local applications, tending to diminish high action
in the brain. It is certain that, by nature, some people are
much more addicted to eating and drinking than others, and
it can hardly be doubted, that these propensities depend
upon a special organ. The abuses of the faculty are
gluttony and drunkenness.^^
41 Published in the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, July, &c. 1832.
See also the Phrenological Journal, vol. viii. p. 624.
42 In the Journal of the Phrenological Society of Paris, the case of a
woman called Denise, detailed in the " Annales de la Medecine Physiolo-
gique," (October, 1832) is taken notice of, as furnishing a curious example
of insatiable appetite for food. In infancy, she exhausted the milk of all
her nurses, and ate four times more than other children of the same age.
At school, she devoured the bread of all the scholars j and in the Salpe-
tridre it was found impossible to satisfy her habitual appetite with less
than eight er ten pounds of bread daUy. Nevertheless, she there experi-
LOVE OF LIFE. 65
LOVE OF LIFE.
Does the love of existence depend upon a particular organ?
It is so conjectured by phrenologists, who conceive that a
portion of the lower and inner side of the middle lobe of
the brain is probably the seat of this feeling. Facts, however,
are more deficient here, than even with regard to the organ
of Alimentiveness. There is much reason to suppose that
Love of Life depends upon a special organ, for we do not
always find that those whose lot has been most fortunately
cast, as respects riches, health, and other things considered
worth living for, set the highest value upon existence. The
wretched and half-starved mendicant often dreads the ter-
mination of life more than the happy and the prosperous,
and this altogether without any reference to a future state
and its punishments. Dr. Johnson had an extreme terror of
death: if this feeling has a special organ, it must have been
large in him. Dr. Thomas Brown treats of " the desire of
continued existence " as a special faculty.
enced, two or three times a month, great attacks of hunger, during which
she devoured twenty-four pounds of bread daily. If, during these fits, any
obstacle was opposed to the gratification of her imperious desire, she
became so furious that she used to bite her clothes, and even hands, and did
not recover her reason till hunger was completely satisfied. Being one
day in the kitchen of a rich family, where a dinner party was expected, she
devoured, in a very few minutes, the soup intended for twenty guests, along
with twelve pounds of bread. On another occasion, she drank all the coflFee
prepared for seventy-five of her companions in the Salpetridre ! Her skull
is small ; the region of the propensities predominates.
In the head of the semi-idiot, Barclay, executed for murder, the organ of
Alimentiveness was very large, and the excessive craving for food corres-
ponded. He clamoured for it shortly before being brought upon the scaffold,
and on the morning of his execution ate a breakfast which would have
sufficed for three healthy men.
For an account of all that is at present known concerning this organ, see
an excellent article, by Mr. Robert Cox, in the Phrenological Journal,
vol. X. p. 249.
Describe the seat and tendency of this organ.
Secretiveness is situated immediately above Destructive-
ness, as may be seen by referring to the bust. When the
latter organ is very large, and comes high up, it may be
mistaken for Secretiveness by the inexperienced observer.
In like manner, Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness are some-
times confounded with Ideality: this happened in the case
of Hare the murderer, in whose head the enemies of Phreno-
logy ignorantly affirmed that Ideality was large, when the
fact was exactly the reverse. These mistakes arise from
the organs in question encroaching more than is usual upon
the neighbouring ones ; but an experienced investigator will
never fall into them. Secretiveness, when large, gives a
general breadth of head at the back part of the temple.
Its tendency is to conceal. The following cut represents
the organ large.
What is the character of a very secretive person ?
He is reserved, and neither open nor explicit; is fond
of stratagem and finesse, and delights in mystifying and
deceiving. His pace is stealthy, his voice soft, his eyes
sidelong, his eyehds half-closed, and he can hardly look an
acquaintance in the face. A person with much Secretive-
ness is very fond of prying into the affairs of others, unless
his mind be of a superior cast.
From what does cunning result?
From the excessive size and activity of this organ. Secre-
tiveness, however, if well regulated by the moral sentiments,
does not display itself in cunning, which is an abuse of the
Has it any thing to do in producing taciturnity ?
It has. Taciturnity arises from Secretiveness and Cautious-
ness, accompanied, generally, with a small development of
Language, and, in many cases, of Love of Approbation.
What good purpose is served by Secretiveness ?
It communicates a power, often highly valuable, of hiding
the manifestation of unpleasant feelings, which, without such
restraint, would be sure to burst forth. It also gives us an
insight into the feelings of others, and suspicion of their
motives ; hence secretive people are not easily imposed upon,
and possess singular facility in detecting imposture, and
seeing through plausibility and pretension. Secretiveness
is of eminent use in war and diplomacy. Hannibal in the
field, and Talleyrand and Fouche in the cabinet, sufficiently
prove the truth of this remark. Secretiveness is the chief
ingredient in what is called tact.
Is Secretiveness requisite for an actor?
No person can be a good performer without it. The
actor must sink his own character in representing another ;
and this is chiefly effected by virtue of Secretiveness. Where
Imitation exists, as it always does in good actors, the process
is still more complete.
Is it an element in humour ^
It enters very fully into what is called dry humour, such
as that of Dean Swift and Cervantes, where the w^riter, under
the disguise of the most perfect simplicity and gravity, con-
vulses us with laughter. Broad humour, such as that of
Smollett and Rabelais, requires less of it, and into Irish
humour it very sparingly enters.
In which sex is the feeling stronger f
In the female ; and the size of the organ corresponds. A
woman is obliged to conceal her feelings on a variety of
occasions, where a man is placed under no such restraints.
This is especially the case in reference to love matters. Lether
attachment be ever so great, she dare not avow it till the man
has made the fullest advances : she dare not even exhibit
any sign of her feeling with regard to him, till he has given
her ample reason to suppose that she is the object of his affec-
tion. In this, and various other displays of concealed emo-
tion which the delicacy of the sex demands, we see the
power of an active Secretiveness.^
What is the character of a pe?'son deficient in this faculty/ f
He is remarkable for candour and openness, speaks his
mind freely, and is under little restraint. People of this kind
ought never to be entrusted with a secret, as they feel a
continual effort necessary to prevent them from divulging it.
Is the faculty active in any of the lower animals?
In many of them it is so, and their craft is generally, though
not always, in proportion to the weakness or helplessness of
the animal. The cunning of the fox and the cat is prover-
bial. Most birds are astute — witness the admirable manner
in which the nests of many of them are hid from observation.
The crocodile and turtle seem to show Secretiveness in the
43 The hacknied but beautiful lines of Shakspeare are familiar to every
" She never told her love.
But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud,
Feed on her damask cheek."
skilful manner in which they hide their eggs in the sand,
unless, indeed, we can suppose, that in so doing, they are
guided by a particular blind instinct. Craft enables some
animals to secure their prey, and others to avoid danger.
State the position and nature of this organ.
It is situated at the anterior, inferior angle of the parietal
bone, and the feeling connected with it gives the tendency
to acquire and accumulate. When very powerful, there is
an inordinate lust after riches. The person becomes a
miser : the whole aim of his life is to hoard ; and the loss of
money he regards as the greatest of misfortunes. So strong
is this feeling, that many persons, though wallowing in
wealth, scarcely allow themselves the common necessaries
of life. Such w^as the case with Elwes, who lived in great
want and misery, although immensely rich — his fortune, at
the time of his death, amounting to £700,000. Daniel
Dancer, the miser, who left £60,000, slept for many years
in an old sack, to save the expense of bedding, and never,
even in the severest weather, allowed himself the luxury of
a fire. He sustained life by begging, and literally died of
starvation. The Duke of Marlborough, though worth
£50,000 a year might be seen darning his stockings at the
head of the army, and would walk home from the theatre on
a rainy night to save sixpence.
What character results from large Acquisitiveness and
The person will be thievishly inclined. If placed in un-
favourable circumstances, it is hardly possible for hino, with
such an organization, to be otherwise than a thief.
If favourably situated^ woidd he act the thief?
Possibly not. His pride, love of approbation, or terror of
discovery, might prevent him from stealing, but still at heart
he would be a thief, and covet every thing he saw.
May a miser be a benevolent man f
He may ; but he will show his benevolence in some other
way than in giving money. Although he may exert himself
vehemently, and spare no trouble to oblige a friend, it
will be difficult or impossible to make him open his purse.
It must be admitted, however, that the tendency of excessive
Acquisitiveness is to "harden the heart, and petrify the
feelings." Gold is the miser's divinity : he worships it as an
idol, and extends his veneration to all who have a large share
of it ; hence wealthy people, however despicable their cha-
racter, are apt to be held in profound respect by the ac-
<4re very acquisitive people usually happy f
They are not. Having, in general, but one source of
felicity, that of hoarding money, they are fretful and discon-
tented, when their efforts at accumulation fall short of what
they calculated upon : the loss of wealth annoys them ex-
ceedingly, and while they venerate, they, at the same time,
envy those who are richer than themselves.
Wliat is the result of small Acquisitiveness?
Indifference about making, and profusion in spending
money. People of this description seldom talk about
wealth; while with the acquisitive this is the favourite theme
Does Acquisitiveness lead to the accumulation of money
No ; it may show itself in accumulation of any kind.
Some people are fond of hoarding books, medals, coins,
curious shells, &c. : if a person has a liking for these things,
and possesses large Acquisitiveness, he will naturally collect
them, especially if this can be done at little expense.
Does this faculty display itself in early life?
When strong, it is manifested at a very early period.
There are vast differences among children in this respect :
one gives half of what he has to his playmate, another keeps
all to himself : one school-boy will keep a halfpenny in his
pocket a week before he has the heart to spend it; another
gets quit of his little treasure almost as soon as it is in his
Does old age whet or dimmish the activity of this organ f
It aggravates it to a great degree. A careful boy will
make a miserly man. Avarice is commonly said to be the
only passion which age does not blunt, but there is reason
to doubt whether the vehemence of Destructiveness is
mitigated by years. Old people frequently become exceed-
ingly irascible and peevish, owing probably to the organ
being stimulated by the discomforts and want of enjoyment
so generally accompanying advanced life. Acquisitiveness
and Destructivenes, therefore, may be held as increased, and
not, like the other organs, diminished in activity by old age.*^
Would you not infer that age blunts Acquisitiveness^ seeing
that theft is most common in early years ?
Children steal more readily than grown people, because
their caution and reflection are less. Adults see more
44 The great Prince of Conde having occasion to go from home for some
time, gave to his son, a young lad, eighty huis d^or for pocket money. On
his return, the careful youth showed liim the money, exclaiming " see,
father, there is all the money you gave me, and I have not spent a single
sous of it." The Prince was so disgusted with the penurious spirit of the
lad, that he took the money and threw it into the street, telling the young
miser that if he had not the manliness to spend it upon himself, he ought
to have given it away.
45 Why age should sharpen Acquisitiveness, while it blunts other
faculties, it is difficult even to conjecture, but the fact is undeniable. A
good story is told of an old Scotch nobleman, one of the Earls of Findlater,
I believe, who, having found a farthing, and being solicited for the same by
a beggar who saw him pick it up, put it carefully into his pocket, saying,
" Na, na, puir body; find a farthing for yoursel."
clearly the consequences to which a discovery of theft would
lead ; and a man has naturally more respect for his reputation
than a child. The desire of a man to possess any thing ma v
be as strong as a child's ; but to obtain it he will not readily
adopt means which may involve him in disgrace. Indepen-
dently of this, the moral feelings are actually weaker in
childhood than at the subsequent periods of life.
May a thief possess benevolence ?
Undoubtedly. He may rob you to-day and relieve you
to-morrow with a liberal hand, if you are in distress. This
fact may be easily verified by referring to the lives of famous
pickpockets and highwaymen. George Barrington is a re-
markable case in point. The celebrated outlaws, Robin
Hood and Rob Roy, were instances in which a gi'eat deal of
benevolent feeling co-existed with large Acquisitiveness and
deficient Conscientiousness.^^ The generous behaviour of
46 The passion for thieving-, is in some individuals so intensely
and irresistibly strong, as absolutely to amount to a disease. In such
cases, it bears a very striking analogy to homicidal monomania. Victor
Amadeus, King of Sardinia, had a strong passion for theft, and frequently
indulged in the vice. The same was the case with Saurin, an intelligent
and pious Swiss clergyman ; and we frequently hear of ladies of rank and
fortune stealing from the shops of haberdashers, while purchasing goods.
The following remarkable case of thieving monomania, I extract from the
London papers. Confirmed thieves seem all to labour under this affec-
Central Criminal Court. — Henry Smith, a smart lad, aged thirteen, was
convicted of stealing a diamond, the property of his father. The boy had
been twice convicted, and kept solitary and whipped, but on his liberation "
he returned to his old habit of pilfering.
The little fellow, with tears, prayed the Court to send him to the convict
ship to break him of thieving.
Court. — Why do you thieve ?
Prisoner. — I cannot help it; I must do it.
The schoolmaster of Newgate was consulted as to the boy's intellect, and
he was reported to be shrewd, of sound intellect, but so addicted to theft,
that only last night he robbed a fellow-prisoner of a shilling. The Court
complied with the prisoner's request.
the robber to Queen Margaret, after her defeat at Hexham,
is matter of history ; and many other instances of such men
displaying great humanity might easily be recorded. In the
prison of Copenhagen, for instance, Dr. Gall saw Pierre
Michel, a crafty and incorrigible thief, who stole for the sole
purpose of giving away to the poor.
Is Acquisitiveness ever morbidly excited?
Such is sometimes the case. Irritation of the organ
from an injury may force it into diseased activity, and thus
make a thief of a person previously honest. Conscientious
people, who become deranged, sometimes display a strong
passion for stealing, on the same principle that individuals
remarkable for chastity and purity of mind frequently in-
dulge, during an attack of madness, in the most lascivious
conversation. Dr. Gall mentions the cases of four women
who, while pregnant, were strongly addicted to theft, and
who yet exhibited no such inclination at other times. In
such instances, the change of character which ensues can only
be referred to diseased activity of the organ.
To what does the legitimate exercise of Acquisitiveness
To a rational accumulation of wealth for proper pur-
poses, as for the sake of securing comfort and independence
to one's self and family. Carried much beyond this point,
it is a contemptible vice, degrading to a human being.
Does the size of the organ differ in different nations ?
Very much. It is said to be small in the Arragonese, and
Castilians ; and these people are not at all given to stealing.
The Calmucs, who are notorious thieves, have a large de-
velopment of the organ. It is generally large in Scotch,
English, and Dutch heads ; hence the vast fortunes acquired,
and the high respect paid to wealth in Great Britain and
Holland. It is small in the French head ; a Frenchman is
satisfied with a moderate competency, and when that is
secured he generally retires from business to pass his life in
pleasure ; while the Briton and the Dutchman toil on till the
last, in the accumulation of property. In France little re-
spect is paid to a person merely on account of his wealth ;
while in some other countries, the mere whisper that a man
is rich is sufficient to ensure him every homage and attention.
Is Acquisitiveness manifested hy the lower animals f
Some of them exhibit its activity in great perfection.
The magpie is a notorious thief, and carries its propensity so
far as to steal what can be of no use to it. Cats are gene-
rally looked upon as thieves, and so are dogs ; but I appre-
hend that it is not, as in the magpie, from an abstract prin-
ciple of appropriation that they steal, but merely to gratify
hunger. The industrious bee, in hoarding honey for its winter
stores, shows the force of Acquisitiveness. The same re-
mark applies to the beaver, which accumulates wood for the
formation of its dwelling. The cow and the horse have the
sense of property. Each goes to its own stall, and defends
it against intrusion.
Describe the position and function of this organ?
It is marked 9 in the bust, and lies in the temple, below
and in front of Acquisitiveness. Its function may be
described as the tendency to fashion or construct, and expert-
ness in doing so. It is large in those who have a con-
structive or mechanical genius, such as Archimedes,^Telford,
Watt, Vauban, Michael Angelo, and Raphael. Dextrous
artizans, and painters and sculptors who are eminent in the
mechanical department of their avocations, must have the
organ large ; and accordingly we find that in them it is
invariably above average. It is impossible to be even an
expert tailor, carpenter, or milliner, without a good endow-
ment of the organ. It alone, however, will not enable us
to contrive an ingenious piece of machinery. Mechanical
contrivers are not impelled by Constructiveness, but by
intellect. The former, however, is absolutely necessary
to embody, or realize, in a machine what the intellect suggests.
What follows when the organ is small f
The person is what we call clumsy-handed, and can do
nothing with neatness and dexterity. Some men are so very
remarkable in this respect that they cannot even make a pen,
or shave themselves,
j How does the faculty exhibit itself in the lower animals f
In various ways, and in some with exquisite nicety,
witness the beautiful architecture of the honeycomb by that
ingenious little artist the bee — the wonderful skill with which
the beaver constructs its dwelling — and the art displayed by
birds in the formation of their nests.
Is the force of this faculty in the lower animals in the ratio
of their general intellect f
No more than in man. The most sagacious animals,
such as the dog and elephant, never attempt a work of art,
while creatures far inferior in general sagacity excel in such
achievements. This is a decided proof that a special organ
exists for the purpose of construction.
Do nations differ greatly with regard to the force of this
Very much indeed. The head of the New Hollander is
narrow in the region of Constructiveness, and his deficiency
in this respect is notorious. The organ is largely developed
in the Italian and French head, and more moderately in the
Can Constructiveness be abused?
Yes. The formation of engines for destroying human life,
and the erection of such structures as the Sphinx, the Cretan
Labyrinth, the Ear of Dionysius, and the Egyptian Pyramids,
may all be regarded as abuses of the faculty. The same may
be said of many of those trifling evanescent works of fancy,
in which so much precious time is wasted by females in the
middle and higher grades of society. Coining and fabri-
cating forged notes are criminal abases of the faculty .^o
May a person void of constructive talent acquire it by
diseased excitement of this organ ?
Facts prove that this is possible. In such cases, however,
the adventitious talent thus curiously acquired, will endure
only so long as the excitement continues.
In what respect does the constructive talent of man differ
from that of the lower animals f
The talent of the lower animals is specific and limited.
The bee can construct only a honeycomb, the bird a nest,
the beaver a dwelling of a particular form. No tuition can
alter the dispositions of these creatures so as to make them
build after any other fashion ; whereas, the constructive
talent of man is general in its operation ; he works by a
thousand different ways, and forms an infinity of distinct
50 There is a man in London who exhibits what he calls the learned fleas.
He has contrived to employ those insects in a variety of occupations, such
as drawing carriages and ships, carrying towers, and other pursuits equally
momentous and important. Wonderful skill is displayed in the construction
of the vehicles, &c. and in the admirable art with which the insects are
attached to them — skill, which applied to proper purposes, might lead to
great results, and do the artist honour. Such a childish application of great
constructive talents, is surely an abuse of the faculty in question .
GENUS II SENTIMENTS.
What meaning is attached to tJie word Sentiment?
The term is applied to those affective faculties which,
besides giving rise to inclinations, feel an emotion or affec-
tion which is not merely a propensity.
SPECIES. I INFERIOR SENTIMENTS.
How would you recognize a large Self^Esteem?
By the elevation which it gives to that part of the head
immediately above Concentrativeness, and between it and
the organ of Firmness. Both the organ and the phj'^siog-
nomical expression of the faculty are well represented in the
subjoined engraving of a proud character.
How was the organ discovered?
In the following manner : — Dr. Gall one day met with a
weak-minded beggar, who had such an inordinate opinion of
his own consequence, that he refused to work, considering
labour to be entirely beneath his dignity. This man was
the son of a rich merchant, and had been reduced to beggary
by over-weening self-conceit preventing him from labouring
for his bread. On examination, Dr. Gall observed a large
prominence on the upper and back part of his head, which
he supposed might be the seat of pride. Subsequent obser-
vations have fully verified his conjecture.
To what does excessive Self-Esteem lead f
To arrogance, to an immense opinion of one's self,^i and,
when accompanied by deficient Benevolence, to great
What are the results of a small development ?
Modesty and humility of demeanour. The person thinks
little of himself, however admirable his merits, and is perfectly
free from presumption. Such persons are great favourites
with those who have much Self-Esteem. There is no collision
of feeling between them — the humble mind unconsciously
giving way to the proud one, and thus affording it gratification .
Is a great endowment of this faculty useful or the reverse?
Useful, rather than otherwise, if accompanied with good
moral sentiments. It gives self-respect, a spirit of indepen-
dence, and that proper pride which disdains every thing
that is mean and dishonourable. Even bad men who have
much Self-Esteem, are often prevented from acting improperly
through the fear of compromising their dignity. A good
51 It is the great Self-Esteem of the English which renders them so insuffer-
able on the Continent — which leads them to decry all other nations, and to
look upon themselves as in every respect the first people in the world. The
songs which are addressed to the Self-Esteem of the nation, are universally
popular: witness "Rule Britannia," and "Ye Mariners of England."
That famous toast "The British Constitution — the pride of surrounding
nations and the envy of the universe," is a preposterous ebullition of immo-
derate Self-Esteem. The Scotch Highlanders have a vast opinion of them-
selves, and I apprehend thatthe organ of Self-Esteem, is, generally speaking,
decidedly larger in them than in their Lowland brethren.
endowment, by inspiring us with confidence in the sound-
ness of our own opinions, is necessary to enable us to make
head against popular errors and prejudices. Luther, in
opposing the errors of the Church of Rome, was much in-
debted to this faculty. Had Dr. Gall been feebly gifted
with it, and possessed, at the same time, predominating
Love of Approbation, he never could have borne up against
the torrent of ridicule and persecution which assailed him
on account of his great discovery.
Is it possible to surmise the existence of large Self-Esteem
without examining the head?
Yes. Those so endowed have generally an upright gait,
carry their heads high, and have altogether an air of conse-
quence about them. They are apt to speak in a pompous
measured style, as if every word they uttered was highly
oracular. They are great egotists, indulging largely in the
use of the pronoun I,^^ and talking constantly of their own
affairs. The pomposity of Self-Esteem is indeed highly
imposing. Shallow men, by dint of it, often pass for being
very profound ; while others with ten times the talent but
destitute of assumption, are frequently thought little of.
In which sex does the organ most predominate?
In the male. Men generally assume more than women,
52 Take the following, from a work recently published, as a specimen: —
" Reader, when I was a child, it was not Gall, but some other galling phren-
ologist, who, seizing one of the protuberances of 7ny reverend head, thank
heaven it was not my nose, , deliberately told my aunt Josephine, that the
said bump contained the organ of matrimony. Now my aunt, not being
deep in the science, as deliberately replied that she did not believe in any
organ but the organ of music; whereat the good man, no way discouraged,
immediately commenced feeling for the said organ. Indeed, sir, cried /,
somewhat impatiently ; indeed, sir, /have got no more bumps, and /should
not have had that, only /fell down yesterday and knocked my head against
the table. My aunt, Josephine, laughing aloud, the phrenologist was dis-
concerted, and /, glad of the opportunity, escaped from the room."— Four
Years' Residence in the West Indies, by F. TV. N. Bayley.
and their opinion of themselves is much greater. More men
go deranged than women, from wounded pride.
What effect is produced hy diseased excitement of this
Its activity is enormously increased, and the person is apt
to imagine himself a monarch, or even the Deity. In every
madhouse lunatics of this description may be met with.
Mention a few of the forms in which Self-Esteem displays
In a fondness for being placed in dignified situations, as
on the magisterial bench, and an extreme sensibility to
neglect or insult. " Better to reign in hell than serve in
heaven," is the language of the faculty. Weak-minded
people with much Self-Esteem, value themselves highly on
account of their great connexions and acquaintances, if they
happen to have any. Dr. Gall speaks of conceited indivi-
duals, who will not cut their nails lest it should appear that
they are obliged to work. Many persons will not put
their names upon their doors. This is the result of Self-
Esteem. They imagine themselves to be people of such
consequence that all the world should know where they
reside. Those with a very strong endowment of this faculty,
are fond of taking the lead on all occasions, and are apt to
be disobedient to superiors. Leaders of mutinies have
the organ well marked. Great Self-Esteem, especially if
combined with deficient Conscientiousness and a mean
intellect, induces people to speak uncharitably and harshly
of those whose religious sentiments difi'er from their own.
They look upon their own particular creed as the only one
which can possibly be true ; and, if Destructivenessis largely
developed, do not scruple to consign all other sects to eternal
punishment in the life to come. Persons of this stamp will
frequently not associate with those who think differently in
religious matters from themselves. '* Get behind me, sinner;
thou art less righteous than I." Such is the motto of these
Does Self-Esteem produce vanity f
No. The proud man despises the opinions of others ;
the vain man lives, as it were, upon them. " The man is
too proud to be vain," was a remark of Dean Swift, and is
founded on a correct view of human nature.^^
Why are many of those who figure as great patriots and
defenders of popular rights thorough tyrants at heart?
This seems to arise from those pseudo-patriots possessing
a great endowment of Self-Esteem, with deficient Benevo-
lence and Conscientiousness. The first makes them impa-
tient of seeing others placed in higher stations than themselves,
and the deficiency of the two last renders them unscrupulous
in their usage of others. To pull down those who sit in
high places, they make tools of the populace, whom probabl}'-
they dislike a great deal more than do those whose overthrow
they are meditating. Knaves of this description frequently
get into Parliament, and other public situations, by impudent
pretensions to superior patriotism.^^
53 " The proud man is penetrated with a sense of his superior merit, and
from the height of his grandeur, treats with contempt or indiflference all
other mortals; the vain man attaches the utmost importance to the judg-
ment of others, and ardently seeks for their approbation. The proud man
expects that the world should come and discover his merit; the vain man
strikes at every door to draw attention towards him, and supplicates even
the smallest portion of honour. The proud man despises the marks of dis-
tinction which constitute the happiness of the vain one. The proud man is
disgusted by indiscreet eulogiums; the vain man inhales incense with
rapture, however unskilfully scattered upon him; the proud man, even
under the most imperious necessity, never descends from his elevation ;
the vain man humbles himself even to the ground, provided by this means he
attain his end." — Gall, Sur Les Fonctions du Cerveau, tome iv. p. 296.
This discriminative sketch is worthy of Theophrastus.
54 " Ces hommes renverseroient tous les trones pour s'eriger euxmemes
en despotes. Ainsi I'organization confirme ce que I'histoire de tous les
temps nous a enseigne sur le but des revolutions : otez-vons de la que je m'y
82 LOVE OF APPROBATION.
Do any of the inferior animah possess the faculty of
The turkey, the peacock, and the horse are conceived to
do so. Napoleon's favourite steed seems to have had the
feeling strong : when ridden by any other than his Imperial
Master, he appeared depressed, and to feel as if degraded ;
but so soon as the Emperor mounted him, he raised his head
erect, looking inflated v^ith pride, as if conscious that he had
the honour of carrying one who was greater than all others.
The animal's sagacity was here equal to his pride, as he
must have caught the idea of his master's rank by remarking
the respectful manner in which he was universally treated.
The dislike which one dog has to see another caressed,
arises from wounded Self-Esteem.
11. LOVE OF APPROBATION.
Describe the position and function of this organ.
It lies on each side of the organ of Self-Esteem. The
objects sought for by the faculty are, esteem and admiration,
and it is gratified by praise. It also prompts us to set an
excessive value upon the opinions of the particular circle in
which we move, however absurd or pernicious those may be.
When very strong, there is a constant and fidgetty desire
to please and be admired by every body, a morbid appetite
for praise, and a longing to know what the world thinks of
us. The person so endowed dresses well, or emploj^s other
means to excite admiration. His leading aim is to procure
applause; he lives upon incense, and is wretched if he does
not obtain it. In short, as pride is the abuse of Self-Esteem,
so is vanity that of Love of Approbation. Combined, they
produce ambition. This organ is very large in the busts of
Themistocles, who from his earliest years displayed an
unquenchable love of glory, and often declared that the
LOVE OF APPROBATION. 83
victories of Miltiades would not allow him to sleep.^^ The
feeling seems to have been very strong in Alexander the
Great, Napoleon, and Charles XII. of Sweden.
Have not women more vanity than men ?
Such is generally the case, although some men have the
passion in great excess. Women are easily flattered, and
soon become partial to those who bestow upon them this
species of adulation. Women frequently go deranged from
diseased Love of Approbation, which is seldom the case with
the other sex.
What is the demeanour of a person with a great endow-
ment of this faculty?
It is conciliating, courteous, and polite, very different from
the hard austerity and pomp of Self-Esteem. Beaux,
masters of ceremonies, teachers of dancing, bowing silk
mercers, &c., afford good illustrations of the natural language
of the faculty.
Does the feeling display itself in any other way ?
Yes : when combined with deficient Conscientiousness, it
disposes the person to " shoot with the long bow," and to be
addicted to boasting. If he is naturally a coward, his Love
of Approbation will dispose him to talk largely of valiant
feats performed by himself — all for the purpose of disguising
55 Themistocles was not a strictly conscientious man, as is proved by his
treatment of Aristides, and his proposal to destroy the ships of the other
Greek powers for the purpose of giving his native country the supremacy,
at a time when these powers were at peace with it, and had no reason to
fear such an outrage. When, however, the King of Persia came to claim
his promise that he would lead the barbarian forces against Greece, his
Love of Approbation seems to have taken alarm, and rather than do a deed
which must have blasted his reputation for ever among his countrymen, he
chose, although the Athenians had used him most shamefully, and well
deserved punishment, to die by his own hands. It is not probable that
Conscientiousness had much influence in stopping him, and far less fear.
The feeling by which he was arrested in his career of vengeance was, in a'l
probability, Love of Approbation.
84 LOVE OF APPROBATION,
his conscious pusilianimity. Men, for the most part, wish
to make it appear that they possess those good qualities in
which they are deficient ; hence the coward, like the ass
in the lion's skin, tries to assume the guise of valour.
By whom is Love of Approbation most displayed?
By those whose success in their profession depends upon
public applause, such as actors, painters, &c. : it is in the
gratification of this feeling, indeed, that the chief reward of
their exertions often consists. People who are fond of ap-
pearing much before the public, either in the shape of orators,
lecturers, chairmen of meetings, movers of addresses, or any
other in which they will be spoken of, and their sayings and
doings blazoned in the newspapers, have generally a large
%^ organ of Love of Approbation.^s
Does vanity manifest itself the same way with every
No. The way in which it manifests itself depends upon
the other faculties. A vain man with a good endowment
of TunCj and a small organ of N^Kihey, will be vain of his
musjcal jjenijjs, and comparatively indifferent to praise on
account of his powers of calculation. Swindlers, pickpockets,
robbers, and even murderers often boast of their feats. If a
man excels in any thing, and possesses much Love of
Approbation, he will be apt to boast of his eminence in that
particular walk ; hence we have men who are vain of their
powers of eating and drinking. The vain man always
wishes to be esteemed eminent in his profession, whether it
56 " I love vanity " observes. Dr. Gall "because it gives rise to a thousand
artificial wants, augments the comforts of life, embellishes our habitations,
and employs and gives support to the indastrious. It is to it, in a great
degree, that we are indebted for the flourishing state of the arts and sciences.
Collections of sculpture, of paintings, of natural history, of books— our
gardens, our monuments, our palaces, would be either paltry'oF'altogether
awanting, without the inspira^ji^ of vanity, the love of distinction."
LOVE OE APPKOBATION. 85
be that of poet, statesman, physician, divine, pickpocket,
glutton, drunkard, or bravo.^^
Do the loiver animals display this faculty ?
Some do. Dogs are exceedingly fond of caresses and
approbation. I remember of a favourite terrier bringing a
rat which he had killed to my bed-room door, and scraping
for admittance, evidently that I might see the good service
he had done. The animal had been trained to rat-killing,
and evidently knew that in slaying one of these creatures he
had done an action which would be applauded. The violent
efforts of the race-hose in the struggle for victory evidently
proceed from Love of Approbation. The faculty is active
in the monkey, which is fond of gaudy dresses.
What follows when the organ is very small ?
A marked indifference to praise and to the opinions of the
world. It is unfortunate when a person is so circumstanced,
for the love of being well thought of is certainly one of the
great incentives to the performance of generous deeds.
Does good ever result from excessive vanity ?
Sometimes to the public — rarely to the individual. For
instance, men, from a love of ostentation, often put down
their names as donors to public charities, to which, otherwise,
they would not have contributed a farthing. The magnifi-
cent sepulchral monuments of " Pere la Chaise" are erected,
in a great measure, at the instigation of vanity on the part
of the families of the deceased. The same feeling has much
to do in the erection and endowment of hospitals to which
wealthy individuals, such as Guy and Heriot, appropriate
57 " A large orgaa of Love of Approbation, in a head of great general
size, gives origin to the ambition of a Bonaparte ; while a large development
of the organ in a small head produces frivolous vanity, like that of the
Hindoos, whose heads, as Lady Irmn says, 'are toyshops filled with trifling
wares.'" — PhrenologicalJournal, vol. viii. p. 641.
Can a person be amiable without Love of Approbation ?
Not easily. This feeling enters strongly into the com-
position of an amiable character. It gives the desire to
please and the fear to offend, which, in every situation of
life are so desirable.^^
What is the tendency of this organ?
To produce a feeling of circumspection, and when very
active, fear. Those in whom it predominates are never rash :
they are what is called " prudent characters," who seldom
get into scrapes, and scrupulously weigh the consequences
of every word and action.
Does great Cautiousness necessarily lead to cowardice f
Not unless it greatly predominates over Combativeness.
Some of the greatest heroes were distinguished for circum-
spection : such was the case with Hannibal, Fabius, and
many others. The skull of Bruce shows a large organ of
Cautiousness, and this feeling was a marked one in his
58 The activity of this feeling is at present a great bar to the progress of
Phrenology, but, by and by, it will assist in disseminating the science.
People with much Love of Approbation are exceedingly shy of doing any
thing which the public mind deems unfashionable ; they go with the majority,
no matter whether that be right or wrong. At present the number of per-
sons who understand, and believe in Phrenology is less than of those who
are ignorant of, and do not believe in it. This difference is gradually diminish,
ing; and as soon as a nearer approximation is made between the strength of
the two parties ; as soon as it appears perfectly manifest that the doctrines
are every where gaining ground, and becoming fashionable and 'popular,
then will the ranks of those who avow faith in them be increased by hosts of
such individuals rushing breathlessly in to tender their adherence at the
eleventh hour. The opinions of these fair weather converts, not being
based upon that rational conviction resulting from knowledge, are of little
consequence as testifying to the truth of the science ; but as regards the
general interests of Phrenology, they are valuable, in so far as so many
obstacles to its diffusion are removed, and greater opportunities afforded of
practically applying its principles than exist at the present moment.
Is a large organ of Cautiousness easily discriminated?
More so, perhaps, than any other. It gives a rounded
and bulging fuhiess to the middle of the parietal bones, under
which it is situated.
The first of the above engravings represents the skull of
a timorous, faint-hearted female : the second that of General
Wurmser, a man remarkable for the recklessness of his
Is this organ well established^
It is one of the best authenticated of the whole series.
Those in whom it is large, have uniformly the feeling of
circumspection strongly stamped upon their character.
What is the consequence of a small development?
Rashness. The person is extremely imprudent ; he speaks
and acts without thinking ; and, if engaged in business, it is
ten to one that he ruins himself.
What most powerfully excites the organ ?
Sudden and imminent danger. Soldiers in battle are
sometimes panic-struck, and take to flight from the violent
excitement of Cautiousness. Before a battle, it is more
likely to be active than when the other faculties are fairly
called into play by the heat of the contest.
What good purpose is served by this faculty?
It keeps people out of mischief, and renders them prudent.
A community in which the feeling did not exist, would soon
go to destruction.
Is the organ ever diseased?
It sometimes is ; and the person becomes straightway the
victim of the most miserable apprehensions. I have
remarked that this organ is uniformly large in those afflicted
with hypochondria, which, indeed, is a morbid affection of
Is the organ larger in the female than in the male?
It is so, not only in the human species, but also in the
Is the feeling very strong in any of the lower animals?
In some, exceedingly so: the sheep and mouse, for
example, are remarkably timid. Animals which prowl by
night, such as the owl and the cat, show the manifestations
of active Cautiousness. Some of the monkey tribe, when
they go on a plundering expedition, place sentries to warn
them of danger. The chamois, the wild goose, the crane,
the starling, and the buzzard are remarkable for circum-
spection, and act like the monkies in appointing sentinels.
In all these animals that portion of the head, corresponding
to the seat of the organ of Cautiousness in the human sub-
ject, is much developed.
Does the size of the organ vary much in aifferent
It varies considerably. In the French head it is rather
small, which partly accounts for the recklessness of the
national character, and the state of disturbance in which that
59 By many authors hypochondria is regarded as a disease of the digestive
viscera; but that its real seat is the organ of Cautiousness, has been amply
demonstrated by Dr. Andrew Combe, in the Phrenological Journal, vol.
iii. p. 5i .
singular people keep not only themselves, but all Europe.
In the English, Scotch, and German head, the organ is large,
and smaller in the Irish. Scotch prudence and Irish
thoughtlessness have long been proverbial. It is very large
in the Hindoo and Peruvian head, and accounts for the
great timidity of character displayed by these nations, its
influence not being modified by the counteracting influence
SPECIES II.— SUPERIOR SENTIMENTS.
Where does this organ lie?
Immediately before the fontanel (or opening of the head,
as it is vulgarly called),6i in the upper and middle part of the
frontal bone ; and it extends downward to the top of the
forehead. It is known by the elevation which, when large,
it gives to the middle of the anterior region of the top of
60 It is observed that when this organ is large, there is also very generally
an ample development of Cautiousness; and between the functions of the
two organs a considerable affinity undoubtedly exists.
61 The fontanel is at the meeting of the coronal and sagittal sutures. In
the young child it is cartilaginous. From the time of birth it begins to
contract, and is generally completely ossified and closed between the second
and third year.
62 In paintings of the head of Christ, the organs of Benevolence and
Veneration are represented as greatly developed, while the posterior region
where the propensities reside, is made exceedingly small. Is this generally
received likeness of Jesus purely ideal ? If so, it shows that the form of
head which painters have considered appropriate to an eminently amiable
and virtuous character, is precisely the same as that assigned to such charac-
Was a high forehead, before the time of Gaily supposed
to indicate benevolence of disposition ?
There is reason to believe so. Shakspeare speaks of
" foreheads villanous low ; " and the ancients, in designing
their deities generally invested them with broad and lofty
foreheads, thus indicating commanding intellect, and dis-
tinguished benevolence. The subject, however, was not
philosophically thought of till Gall took it up, and demon-
strated that the sentiment depends upon a special organ of
What effect on the character is produced by a large
The individual is distinguished by the kindness and mercy
of his disposition. He is generous in his sentiments, averse
to give pain and uneasiness, charitable, and inclined to
think well of every body, and do good to all his fellow-
creatures. Some of the ancient philosophers, such as
Plato and Socrates, are splendid instances of the beauty and
power of this noble sentiment. The story of the good
Samaritan is a fine specimen of benevolent feeling. One of
I the grandest instances on record occurs in the history of
I Sir Philip Sidney, who, when mortally wounded at the
s battle of Zutphen, and suffering under the tortures of
i excessive thirst, presented the water, which he was in the
ters by phrenologists. Dr. Gall, however, is of opinion,] that the above
representation is not imaginary, but conveys a genuine likeness of the great
original. " It is at least probable," says he, " that the general type of the
form of Christ's head has been handed down to us. Saint Luke was a
painter, and in that capacity, is it not likely that he would wish to preserve
the features of his Master ? It is certain that this likeness of the Saviour's
head is of high antiquity : we find it in the most ancient mosaics and paint-
ings. In the second century, the Gnostics possessed images both of Christ
and Saint Paul. Hence neither Raphael, nor any painter of more ancient
date, invented the admirable configuration of head which has been assigned
act of raising to his mouth, to a dying soldier whom he saw
eagerly eyeing it — saying "take that; your want is even
greater than mine."^^ In Christ's sermon on the Mount we
have a sublime emanation of blended Benevolence and Con-
scientiousness. Indeed, throughout the whole of the New
Testament the supremacy of the moral sentiments shines forth
with a lustre not to be equalled in any other code of religion
What happens when the organ is ve?!/ small?
The person is careless of the welfare of others, disoblig-
ing and selfish. Unless he has some end to serve, it will be
impossible for him to do a kindly action. Such a man can
never be a true and disinterested friend. Moloch, as repre-
sented in " Paradise Lost," is an instance of a total destitu-
tion of this faculty ; and nearly the same may be said of
Ahab and Jezebel in the book of Kings, of Shakspeare's lago,
Moore's Zeluco, and also of Varney, in the romance of
*' Kennilworth." The organ, according to Dr. Gall, was
very deficient in the head of Robespierre. Some of the
Roman Emperors, as Domitian, Commodus, Caligula,
Heliogabolus, and Nero, seem to have been as nearly void
of the sentiment as we can suppose creatures not absolutely
denizens of Pandemonium, to be. The busts of these men
63 " Man," observes Gall, " is generally more good, kind-hearted, and
just, than he is wicked and unjust. People of simple manners— the com-
fortable peasant, the industrious artizan, for example, are very benevolent
towards their equals. We rarely see among them an orphan who fails to
meet with the assistance which his situation demands. They often treat
them as they would their own cliildren, and not unfrequently with even
greater kindness. Seldom do the poor, who knock at their doors, re-
turn empty-handed : their direct impulse is always one of kindness towards
the unfortunate." Gall liimself had a large organ of Benevolence, and, in
harmony with this development, was inclined to view human nature with a
generous eye. Those in whom the organ is small have, from their own
consciousness, a tendency to think meanly of their fellow-creatures, and to
form a low estimate of human virtue.
represent a poor development of Benevolence v\^ith a predo-
minating basilar region. Take as an example the sub-
joined representation of Nero's head.
May Benevolence co-exist with great roughness of manner?
Nothing is more common ; but the general tendency of
the feeling is to communicate sweetness . to the disposition,
and to soften the manners. Some people are absolutely
ashamed of the Benevolence they possess, and try to hide
it under a rough exterior : " rough diamonds " of this descrip-
tion are occasionally to be met with. Dr. Johnson was an
instance of distinguished Benevolence combined with coarse-
ness of manners — 'Ca^fortiter in mode with the suaviter in re.
What are the abuses of Benevolence ?
The tendency to yield to every kind of solicitation is one;
whence the individual becomes the prey of mendicants and
impostors : he impoverishes himself to do good to others,
and has his brain constantly filled with Utopian schemes of
Have the lower animals this organ ?
They have, to some extent. In them it shows itself
chiefly by tractability and gentleness. A good tempered
dog or horse can be known by the shape of the head. The
13 Benevolence large.
5 Combativeness small.
13 Benevolence small.
5 CorabatiTeness large.
celebrated race horse " Flying Childers," had a very low
and flat forehead, and his temper was extremely vicious.
In the spaniel and Newfoundland dog, both distinguished
for goodness of temper, the organ is much larger than
in the bull-dog, whose dispositions are naturally morose
and savage. The roebuck, which is a mild-tempered animal,
has a prominence, and the chamois, which is the reverse, a
depression over the region of Benevolence.
64 I know several individuals in this situation, and in the whole of them
there is great height of forehead— in other words, a large development of
the organ of Benevolence. The fanciful impracticabilities of Mr. Owen
seem to result from the immoderate action of this organ, combined with that
of Hope in excess.
What is the nature of the faculty connected with this
It may be described as that feeling which produces vener-
ation in general, or respect for those whom we consider
worthy of reverence. When directed to the Supreme
Being, it gives the tendency to religious adoration. Some
persons object to there being an organ in the brain which
gives the tendency to religious feeling, on the ground that
such an idea is hostile to the doctrine of a revelation; but
this, as Spurzheim remarks, is an unfounded objection —
religion of one kind or another having existed long before
the dates of the Old and New Testaments, in which the
Christian revelation is handed down to us. The emotion
communicated by this organ is, in itself, blind, and gives no
insight into the truth or falsehood of a religion. The
soundness or unsoundness of any creed is tested by another
set of faculties, viz. the Intellectual, and cannot be taken
cognizance of by a mere sentiment which simply feels, and
is incapable of reasoning. In reference to the present faculty,
Mr. Combe finely observes that " as Nature has implanted the
organs of Veneration and Wonder in the brain, and the
corresponding sentiments in the mind, it is a groundless
terror to apprehend that religion can ever be extinguished, or
even endangered, by the arguments or ridicule of the pro-
fane. Forms of worship may change, and particular religi-
ous tenets may now be fashionable and subsequently fall
into decay; but while the human heart continues to beat,
awe and veneration for the Divine Being will ever animate
the soul : the worshipper will cease to kneel, and the hymn
of adoration to rise, only when the race of man becomes
Where is the organ situated ?
Immediately behind that of Benevolence, and directly-
over the fontanel. It occupies the middle of the top of the
head. The annexed engraving of the head of St. Bruno
displays a great development of the organ. Benevolence is
also very large. Such a configuration of brain is highly
favourable to religion and virtue. Men so constituted are a
law unto themselves. They revere their Maker, and have
an instinctive tendency to love and treat with tenderness
the whole human race.
This organ was large in the head of Voltaire: why then
was he an infidel ?
Because he was not convinced of the divine origin of
Christianity. No man can venerate what he does not con-
ceive to be true. Voltaire, however, venerated the Deity,
of whose existence he entertained no doubt. 66 The respect
66 See " Observations on some Objections .to Plirenology, founded on a
part of the Cerebral Development of Voltaire," by Mr. Simpson. — Phreno-
logical Jowmal, vol. iii. p. 564.
which this writer showed for princes, and the gratification
he experienced in associating with them arose undoubtedly
from his large Veneration.
May a person believe in a particular religion^ and yet
have little Veneration?
\ Undoubtedly. Belief may be a matter of pure reason,
I though, in general, the judgment is swayed by the feelings.
I The merely intellectual believer, however, will never be a
very ardent disciple of that religion in which his faith is placed.
He may believe in a Great First Cause without inclining to
Under what other forms does the faculty display itself?
In a respect for rank, for existing institutions, for anti-
' quity, and for the ruling powers. It is the grand natural
maintainor of subordination of the lower ranks to the higher,
and of the submission of children to parents and teachers.
A person with this sentiment strong, is overawed in coming
into the presence of those whose rank or other valued dis-
i| tinction, is greatly superior to his own.6'7 Such persons, if
their intellect is not of that respectable, order which disposes
. them to appreciate intellectual characers, will be more flat-
: tered by the acquaintanceship of a silly lord than by that of
I such a man as Locke or Newton.
67 " Tlie faculty may be manifested in reverence for Jupiter, or the Lama
of Thibet, or graven images, or the God of the universe; for crocodiles,
cats, or the Great Mogul, or Catholic priests, or Presbyterian ministers, or
rusty coins, or a titled aristocracy, or the ornaments and furniture of a
chv.rch. To those who have it disproportionately strong, the word ' old ' is
synonymous with ' venerable ;' and in their view, no institution or doctrine,
however hurtful and absurd, is, if sanctioned by antiquity, to be at all
meddled with. They obstinately adhere to the religious tenets instilled
into them in childhood, and wdll not listen to arguments tending to support
doctrines of a different kind. When, on the other hand, the organ of Vener-
i| ation is moderate, and the intellect is acute and enlightened, the individual,
j unwarped by prejudice and feeling, regards only the intrinsic merits of the
ji doctrines and institutions which prevail around him, and shapes his opinions
\\ accordingly." — PhrenologicalJournal, vol. viii. p. 59S.
Whence arises the love for collecting antiques ?
From Veneration combined with Acquisitiveness. The
first disposes us to value the object on account of its anti-
quity ; the second makes us long to possess it. People with
small Veneration have little abstract love for any thing,
merely because it is ancient.
Does Veneration display itself in the same way with
No ; it is directed very much by the other faculties. A )
man of high intellect and Veneration will venerate intellec- 1
tual characters ; another, with Veneration and Combative- \
ness, great warriors ; and a third, with Veneration and i
Acquisitiveness, will venerate the rich. The two former, on 1
beholding the cross, the hunting horn, or the bones of
Charlemagne, in the church at Aix-la-Chapelle, will feel
deep awe at the sight of these relics of so renowned a states-
man and hero ; the third, having no sympathy with valour
and genius, will gaze upon them unmoved, while he would
look with sensations of great respect, and even awe, upon
such a man as Mr. Rothschild. It is to be observed, \
however, that a powerful and cultivated understanding tends I
to keep Veneration within rational bounds. \
When the organ is strongly excited, in what manner does j
it affect the character? I
In producing keen religious or devotional feelings, ter-
minating sometimes even in madness.
How happens it that irreligious people sometimes become,
all of a sudden, very devout?^
This proceeds from sudden excitement of the organs of
Veneration and Wonder. The individual has, probably,
68 It also oftentimes happens that, in cases of serious illness,, people he- :
come very religious, who, for many years previous, exhibited no devotional
feeling-. This, I believe, may often be accounted for, on the well known \
principle of cerebral excitement reviving lost ideas. The brain is stirau- ■
98 • VENERATION.
been exposed to circumstances which call them into activity,
as the declamation of some enthusiastic preacher, and the
result is a vehement fit of religion, which continues so long
^ as the stimulus operates on the brain.
A person then may become religious whether his organ of
Veneration be large or small^ seeing that a small organ may
be stimulated as well as a large one?
It is only the predominating organs that are very likely to
be excited ; a small organ is by no means equally liable to
be acted upon in this manner, and when really stimulated,
does not give rise to the same intensity of feeling. If it
were so acted upon, the person would be religious com-
pared to what he formerly was, but still his feelings on this
point would be far inferior in energy to those of another
person, with a larger organ of Veneration in the same state
May a person have a great deal of religious feeling and
yet not be virtuous ?
Undoubtedly : witness the instances of Louis XI. of France,
Philip II. of Spain, Catherine de' Medici, and the " Bloody"
Queen Mary, all of them religious devotees, and yet most
lated by the disease, and the religious impressions instilled into us in child-
hood are brought back to cheer the sufferer on the bed of sickness, and
smooth his path to the graTe. Various instances of the resuscitative power
of excited brain are given in this work.
j 69 An acquaintance with Phrenology must be of great use in preventing
I people from running into fanaticism, and in allaying religious melancholy. If
j a man knows that such violent states of feeling arise from excitement exist-
I ing in his brain, he will set about counteracting them ; whereas, when
\ he is ignorant of this fact, he will be apt to mistake the impression under
■ which he labours for the effect of some supernatural cause; and the illu-
sion, instead of being checked, will probably go on increasing, till it termi-
nates in madness. An eminent phrenologist informs me, that he is ac-
quainted with, several ladies who have actually been reclaimed from fanati-
cism by studying Phrenology. I believe the statement, and can easily imagine
that a knowledge of this science will go far to check the accession of most
forms of lunacy.
worthless characters. If the precepts, however, which a
religion inculcates are, in themselves, of a strictly moral
character, the respect for their authority inspired by this
sentiment, will naturally tend to make people more virtuous.
The precepts of Christianity are of this kind, and when
strictly followed, can only lead to sound morality : those of
some other forms of religion being depraved, conduce to
vice. The Hindoo who throws his child beneath the wheels
of the car of Juggernaut, acts as much under the influence
of Veneration, as the enlightened Christian who worships
the true God. The difference consists in this, that in the
one case it is a misdirected impulse, in the other, it is an
impulse guided by reason.
In which sex is the feeling of Veneration more energetic f
In the female. Women are more susceptible of religious
impressions than men, and are generally the first to be
caught by new doctrines. They have also a greater ten-
dency to respect rank, and are naturally aristocratic in their
ideas. Few women are enamoured of republican principles.'^o
Self-Esteem being weaker and Veneration stronger in
70 Some years ago, religious monomania was exceedingly common in the
West of Scotland, among a class of people who went by the name of
Rowites. These fanatics were mostly young females, in the middle and
upper classes of society ; and the extent to which they carried their insane
ravings was most astounding. An enthusiastic young woman was the
High Priestess of this sect: her they supposed to be divinely commissioned,
and even gifted with the power of working miracles. At length she left
the place, and the excitement of her presence being withdrav/n, the mania
subsided. I agree with Dr. Mackintosh in thinking, that a few weeks' work
on the tread-mill, with scanty fare, would have cured of their fantasies the
over-fed and idle young ladies who indulged in this egregious folly. The
reader will find in the ninth volume of the Phrenological Journal a series
of acute and instructive papers on this kind of insanity, entitled " Observa-
tions on Religious Fanaticism : illustrated in a comparison of the belief and
conduct of noted religious enthusiasts with those of patients in the Montrose
Lunatic Asylum." By W. A. Browne, Esq., the superintendent of that
women than in men, nature has obviously intended that this
sex should be led by, and obey, the other.
What were the circumstances which lighted up the fires of
Smithfield^ and prompted the massacre of St. Bartholomew ?
These horrible immolations of innocent persons at the
shrine of bigotry, seem to have resulted from a violent excite-
ment of this organ, combined with great Destractiveness
and Self-Esteem, and a lamentable lack of Benevolence
and knowledge. A weak or uninformed intellect, acting
under the inspiration of excited religious feeling, would make
the perpetrators imagine they were doing a deed highly
acceptable to the Deity ; and Destructiveness coming into
play, and not being counteracted by Benevolence, would
urge them on fiercely to the commission of these diabolical
Where is this organ situated?
Behind that of Veneration, on the summit of the head, to
which, when very large, it gives a towering appearance.
What is the nature of its faculty?
The name sufficiently designates this.
When it is very
large, the individual is distinguished for great perseverance.
Whatever he undertakes, whether for good or evil, he pur-
sues steadily ; and the general cast of his mind is firm and
decided. He encounters misfortunes heroically, and endures
physical pain with unshrinking stoicism. He is not to be
turned from his purposes, but is rather apt to be unyielding
and obstinate. There are great differences in people as to
their capability of resisting solicitation. This, other things
being equal, arises from the different degrees in which they
are endowed with Firmness. The faculty tends to keep the
other powers of the mind in a state of continuous action,
enabling those higly gifted with it to pursue steadily the
natural bent of their talents. Where the development is
small, the person is fickle and infirm of purpose. He may
possess excellent abilities, but from want of perseverance
they are not properly cultivated and brought out. Instability
and indecision of character are uniformly accompanied with
a deficient size of the organ : and these qualities appear still
more prominent where, along with such deficiency, there is
a large development of Cautiousness.
What is obstinacy f
Obstinacy is an abuse of Firmness, and the result of a
great development of this organ, with small or moderate
Conscientiousness. A strictly honest man can never be long
or wilfully obstinate, however great his Firmness : the latter
always gives way before what he conceives to be the dictates
Is it possible to have too much Firmness ?
When the dispositions are naturally virtuous, and the
intellect good, this is impossible, as the faculty in question
only leads them more strongly and perseveringly in their
natural current. When, however, there is a predominance
of vice in the character, great Firmness may act perniciously,
by causing an obstinate perseverance in evil.
In what characters would you expect to find the organ
In those who show unshaken constancy and indomitable
perseverance. It must have been large in Luther and
Knox. King Robert Bruce's skull shows a great deve-
lopment of it ; and he evinced the feeling to a wonderful
degree. It is large in those who manifest great determina-
tion in crime, as Haggart ; and also in those whose steadi-
ness of friendship nothing can shake. The firmness of
Captains Ross and Parry is well known, and the organ is
very ample in the heads of those eminent navigators. I am
told that it is remarkably large in General Jackson, the Ame-
rican President, a man whose firmness of purpose borders
on obstinacy. The North American Indians are remarkable
for their unconquerable fortitude, and the dogged indiffer-
ence with which they submit to the most horrible tortures :
in them it is greatly developed. It must have been very
large in Marshal Ney, who possessed astonishing firmness
In what manner does the faculty connected with this organ
In inducing sentiments of strict justice.'^^i He in whom it
is strongly manifested is a person of stern integrity : he pays
his debts, does what he considers his duty, and is incapable
of dissimulation or falsehood — adhering, in its strictest sense,
to the noble maxim of doing unto others as he would be done
by. Such a man will rather die of starvation than steal —
71 "The laws of honour, as apprehended by some minds, are founded on
the absence of Conscientiousness, with great predominance of Self-Esteem
and Love of Approbation. If a gentleman is conscious that he has unjustly
given offence to another, it is conceived by many that he will degrade him-
self by making an apology; that it is his duty to fight, but not to acknow-
rather go to the block than violate the dictates of his con-
science. If he commits a wrong he is the first to acknow-
ledge it, and feels uneasy till he makes ample reparation. He
has, in short, a vivid and peculiar pleasure in acting honestly.
Where is the organ situated^
At each side of Firmness.
What follows when the organ is small F
Lying, theft, hypocrisy, evil-speaking, dissimulation, and
general want of principle are apt to be the consequences of
ledge himself in fault. This is the feeling produced by powerful Self- Esteem
and Love of Approbation, with great deficiency of Conscientiousness.
Self-Esteem is mortified by an admission of fallibility, while Love of Appro-
bation suffers under the feeling that the esteem of the world will be lost
by such an acknowledgment; and if no higher sentiment be present in a
sufficient degree, the wretched victim will go to the field and die in support
of conduct that is indefensible . When Conscientiousness is strong, the
possessor feels it no degradation to acknowledge himself in fault, when he
is aware that he is wrong: in fact, he rises in lus own esteem by doing so,
and knows that he acquires the respect of the world ; while, if fully con-
scious of being in the right, there is none more inflexible than he." — Combe's
System of Phrenology, Ath edition, vol. i., p. 358.
such an unfortunate configuration, the propensities being
left in a great measure unbridled.
May a deficiency of the sentiment display itself otherwise
than in the commission of what society would deem crimes?
Yes. The not keeping appointments and promises, the
telling of "white lies," jilting, coquetry, quibbling, profess-
ional quackery and humbug, writing impertinent anonymous
letters, puffing trashy works, giving false characters to
servants, borrowing books and umbrellas and not return-
ing them, taking possession of another man's seat in the
theatre or coach, knowing that you have no right to do
so, and that it will put him to inconvenience, are all breaches
of honesty, and indicate a small or moderate development of
the organ. Divulging secrets with which we are entrusted,
is another violation of the sentiment, frequently committed
by people who would be very much astonished at being
told they were not perfectly honest.
Is a deficiency of Concientiousness ever consistent loith the
enjoyment of a fair reputation?
. Nothing is more common. Many who are not by nature
honest, act honestly in matters of business, because it is their
interest to do so ; but such persons will be found constantly
violating the minor branches of honesty, such as those men-
tioned, when no particular evil arises to themselves from
the violation. Men previously considered honest, some-
times become bankrupt under disgraceful circumstances,
involving their friends in one common ruin, and recklessly
sacrificing, for the purpose of saving themselves, every human
being on whom they can lay hold. This is the result of
small Conscientiousness. So long as things go well, the
man acts with integrity ; but when he finds that upright con-
duct will only hasten the crisis of his fate, his small modicum
of Conscientiousness goes to sleep, and he has recourse to
every dishonest expedient to put off the evil day.''^
What is remorse?
That distressful state of mind arising from Conscientious-
ness or Benevolence when outraged. If a man, in an un-
72 Every now and then, we hear of persons who had previously led an
upright life, running off with large sums of money, to the no small astonish- \
ment of their friends, who are surprised at so unaccountable a change of j
character, as they term it. There is, however, no change of any kind. \
The individuals are, in every respect, precisely the same as they were before r
committing the felonious act ; but they have been placed in different circum- '
stances, and a seeming change is thus produced in their minds. If a young I
man, for instance, with moderate Conscientiousness is shopman to a linen |
draper, and obliged to account every night for the money which he draws in i
during the day, he may act with perfect honesty, as the temptation to steal \
is comparatively small, the produce of a single day's sale, being all he could \
possibly appropriate; but supposing him, in virtue of his sobriety, obliging
disposition, attention to business, and dexterity in arithmetic, to be appointed \
head clerk to the establishment, and entrusted, from time to time, with large •
sums of money, it is perfectly possible that he may act very differently. ;
His feeble sense of Conscientiousness may be unequal to the enormously •
increased temptation to which it is exposed, and nothing is more likely than \
that he should play the thief. This we hear of every day. Such cases \
would be far less frequent, or rather they would not happen at all, were the i
discriminative powers of Phrenology brought into play in the choice of con, \
fidential servants. ^
guarded moment, does any thing of which either of these
faculties strongly disapproves, the pain arising from such
i disapproval constitutes remorse.
Do all who commit crimes feel the pangs of remorse?
They do not. Where Conscientiousness is very deficient,
especially if Benevolence is in the same condition, no remorse
] whatever is experienced, though nothing is more common
I than the belief to the contrary, even among enlightened men.
i It is a great mistake to suppose that all the wicked are
> tortured by the pangs of conscience. Bellingham felt no
remorse for the murder of Mr. Perceval, nor did Hare for
his still more diabolical deeds.'^^ When such wretches
escape the gallows, they are more frequently punished by
the abhorence of society than by any internal feeling arising
from conscience. The mark of Cain is set upon them, and
they walk the earth, outcasts from the human race.
73 William Burke, whose Benevolence was not so small as that of Bel-
lingham and Hare, though sadly overpowered by the predominance of his
lower propensities, experienced the horrors of remorse to a great degree.
He stated that, for a long time after the commission of his first murder, he
felt it utterly impossible to banish for a single hour the recollection of the
fatal struggle he had with his victim — the screams of distress and despair —
the agonizing groans, and all the realities of the dreadful deed. At night,
the bloody tragedy, accompanied by frightful visions of supernatural beings,
tormented him in his sleep. For a long time, he shuddered on being alone
in the dark, and during the night kept a candle constantly burning in his
room. Even to the last, he could not overcome the repugnance of his moral
nature to murder — such a glimmer of Benevolence as he had, was always
in his way admonishing him ; and this he had to extinguish in the fumes of
whisky before he was able to overcome its influence. He positively asserted
that he could not have committed murder when perfectly sober. In his head
the organ of Conscientiousness was not so small as in moat atrocious cri-
minals — hence his visions of remorse.
The following is an instance of the absence of remorse. Many years ago,
a wretch was broken upon the wheel at Lyons, for some shocking murders
which he had committed. After having his limbs broken to pieces, the
monster, just as he was expiring, laughed aloud, and upon being asked by
the executioner what was the cause of his merriment, said he could not help
feeling amused at the recollection of the grimaces made by a certain spoon-
maker, into whose mouth he had poured melted tin.
In what class of persons is an ample endowment of Con-
scientiousness especially requisite?
No human being exists in whom a deficiency of this
most god-like of all the faculties is not to be deplored. It
is in a peculiar manner necessary, however, to judges on the
bench, ministers of state, confidential servants, and all
entrusted with onerous and important duties. Justice, in
fact, is merely the manifestation of Conscientiousness.
Can this faculty be abused?
Yes, especially by weak-minded people. An honest
man, for instance, if his understanding be so weak that he
does not see the unjust tendency of an action, may persist
in doing it, in the belief that he is really performing his duty.
Another abuse of the faculty is an absurd adherence to
pernicious principles which the person believes to be right.
Excessive remorse and self-condemnation, where there are
no circumstances to justify such feelings to half the extent in
which they are experienced, are also abuses of Conscien-
Do you affirm that all actions prompted by Conscientious-
ness are not necessarily just ?
I do. This sentiment being a blind feeling, merely impels
us to act justly and must be aided by the intellect in deter-
mining what is just. A man, for instance, may think that
his action will realize the dictates of justice, whereas, had
his intellect or knowledge been greater, he would have
seen that the reverse would be the case.
Is great delight experienced in the exercise of this
Greater than perhaps from any other. " Honesty is its
own reward." By acting in obedience to Conscientiousness,
a man may involve himself in poverty, or meet with impri-
sonment and torture ; still the consolation derived from his
own integrity of purpose supports hira : he is recompensed
; by the approval of his conscience, and rejoices even in the
! midst of sufFering.74
Describe the position and function of this organ.
It lies on each side of Veneration, and its tendency is to
produce the feeling of Hope. If the other faculties desire any
thing, this one disposes us to believe in the possibility of their
longings being gratified. An acquisitive person, for instance,
will have a strong hope or expectation of being able to
obtain money, should the faculty under consideration be
powerful. Nor does this depend upon reflection ; for when
reason tells us that the chances are all the other way, we
often continue hoping, and console ourselves with the idea
of ultimate success.
What good purpose does this faculty serve?
It induces us to take gay and pleasant views of the future,
and keeps up our spirits in the midst of misfortune : though
clouds lower around us we are cheered with the expectation
of speedy sunshine. Mungo Park in his desolate sojournings
in Africa, and Sir John Ross in his miserable Polar solitude
of four years, must have been powerfully supported by the in-
fluence of this organ. One of Ross's men died of sheer
despondency, which would not have happened had he pos-
sessed the sentiment in vigour. The strong hope of a reprieve
74 A beautiful instance of the power of Conscientiousness was witnessed
by Dr. Smollett. Walking along the streets of Glasgow, a beggar, in
great apparent misery, solicited charity of the doctor, who, putting his hand
into his pocket, gave him what he supposed to be a shilling, but which was,
in reality, a guinea. The beggar supposing that a mistake was committed,
ran after his benefactor and tendered him the golden gift. " Good God! "
exclaimed Smollett, on witnessing this act of integrity, " in what a habita-
tion has honesty taken up her abode! " It need hardly be added that the
generous novelist made this upright mendicant keep what he had received,
as a reward for his admirable ^-onduct.
has sustained the spirits of malefactors till within an hour of
their being brought upon the scaffold. Mary M'Innes,
while under sentence of death for murder, never lost the
hope of being pardoned.
What is the result of a small organ of Hope?
The person is prone to despondency. He never takes
cheering views of the future, and is surprised when any thing
lucky occurs. People of this turn of mind are seldom disap-
pointed, which is the only good that ever results from
moderate Hope. In suicides, and those who view a future
state with apprehension, we should expect the organ to be
small in proportion to that of Cautiousness. Deficient Hope
with large Cautiousness and Destructiveness predisposes to
What are the abuses of Hope ?
Rashness, credulity, and high expectations, not founded on
reason. Those who *' build castles in the air," gamblers,
dabblers in lotteries and in the funds, are all much imbued
with the sentiment of Hope.
What effect has Hope upon a person's religion ?
It disposes to faith in agreeable views, and in particular
to strong belief of a happy state of being in a life to come.
Where is the organ of Wonder situated?
Immediately above Ideality.
WJiat is its function f
To inspire a love of the strange, the new, and the mar-
vellous. It gives a fondness for supernatural stories, and a
75 Suicide is sometimes hereditary. Dr. Gall mentions a family where
the great-grandfather, the grandfather, and the father all destroyed them-
selves. Another he speaks of where the grandmother, her sister, and the
mother did the same. The daughter attempted to throw herself out of a
window, and the son hanged himself.
love of visiting mysterious and unfrequented countries ; it
also disposes to the belief in miracles, witches, and apparitions,
and to superstition in general. It is not, however, the only
source of the latter : ill directed and excessive Veneration, by
disposing to belief in the assertions, however absurd, of revered
authority, sometimes leads to superstitious opinions, especially
when coupled with ignorance and weakness of intellect.
Name a few individuals in whom you would expect to find
a large organ of Wonder.
I should look for it in such persons as Hoffmann, Radcliffe,
Coleridge, and the Ettrick Shepherd. The Devils' Elixir,
the Mysteries of Udolpho, Christabel, and Kilmenny, are all
strongly characterised by the sentiment of Wonder.
Have persons who see apparitions, generally the organ
This fact seems to be well established. In the portraits
of Tasso, who was visited by a familiar spirit, the organ
appears large, giving his head that rounded fulness im-
mediately above Ideality which is possessed by all who have
a large development of the organ. It is very large in the
head of Earl Grey, who is haunted by the apparition of a
bloody head ; and a crowd of cases have been collected by
Dr. Gall and others, which seem to place the matter beyond
a doubt. When Gall first saw Earl Grey, he said to a friend
who stood by — " That man beholds visions." These facts
are curious, and apparently incredible, but nevertheless they
are supported by powerful evidence.
Why should a mere sentiment induce the seeing of visions,
which is an intellectual operation f
The organ of Wonder cannot of itself do this, but it pos-
sesses the peculiar, though unaccountable, power of stimula-
ting the perceptive organs, and thus exciting them to undue
activity. Thus stimulated, they may conjure up false
imsiges and cause the person to imagine that he sees visions,
Is the organ peculiarly liable to excitement ?
More so than most others. A fanatical preacher, by
calling it into activity, will infect with his zeal a whole
parish. Such was the case with Irving, Campbell, and
other well-meaning but deluded enthusiasts — to say nothing
of the notorious Joanna Southcote. During the persecutions
in Scotland, excitement of this organ seems to have been
exceedingly common among the Covenanters.
Where does this organ lie ?
On the side of the head, over the temples. Above, it is
bounded by Hope and Wonder, behind by Cautiousness, and
below by Acquisitiveness. In the following likeness of the
poet Tasso it is well developed.
What is the nature of the faculty connected with it? \
It consists in a taste for the graceful, the beautiful, and j
the sublime. All things which partake of these qualities
gratify it. The savage desolation of Glenco, the awful gloom
and sublimit}'^ of Chamouni, the graceful loveliness of Win-
dermere, a beautiful woman, a lovely child, the Belvidere
Apollo — all such objects stimulate the organ, and give rise
to emotions of the grand or the beautiful. Painting, sculpture,
and poetry, the loveliness of the moonlight hour, and the
gorgeous majesty of sunset, are all dear to him who is gifted
Why, in some persons, is Ideality most highly gratified by
the beautiful, in others by the sublime ?
Destructiveness and Cautiousness, in combination with
Ideality, are conjectured to give a love of the sublime in
particular. Where a love of the beautiful predominates over
that of the grand and the terrible, the two former are proba-
bly of more moderate dimensions. Destructiveness, which
seems to take an interest in desolation, may give Ideality a
bias towards the dreary sublime, while Cautiousness appears
to be an ingredient in love of the terrible. The subject,
however, stands in need of farther elucidation.
Will Ideality alone make a painter or a poet?
No ; but it gives that imaginative feeling or enthusiasm
which enters so largely into the composition of both. To
excel in these arts other faculties are requisite ; the painter
requiring Form, Size, Colouring, and Constructiveness, and
the poet Language, to embody his conceptions. Ideality, in
conjunction with one or more of these intellectual faculties,
produces what is called Imagination.
Mention a few individuals eminently gifted with Ideality.
^schylus, Pindar, Shakspeare, Milton, Spenser, and
Ariosto, among poets; Raphael, Michael Angelo, and
Salvator Rosa among painters ; Thorwalsden and Flaxman
among sculptors. The works of these great men display
the faculty in all its vigour.
What is the character of a person who has a great endoW'
merit of Ideality ?
His language is generally elevated, his conceptions flow
from him rapidly and eloquently, his conversation displays
much richness, his illustrations are copious and varied, and
he abounds in figurative language. This is peculiarly the
case where the organs of Language and Comparison are
also large. The style of Lord Bacon is replete with Ideality.
When the organ is small, is the character materially dif-
Yes. The manners, thoughts, and conversation of the indi-
vidual are homely and unadorned. He seldom or never uses
poetical language. Grand or beautiful objects do not strike
him forcibly, or throw him into raptures. He is a plain, matter-
of-fact man, who boasts largely of his common sense, and
affects a great contempt for poetry, and other imaginative
productions. The organ is small in the heads of Locke,
Mr. Joseph Hume, and Cobbett.'^s
Is the faculty sharpened or blunted by old age?
Age impairs Ideality more than almost any other faculty.
Old people seldom display any of it, 'although there are
very eminent exceptions, such as Homer, Milton, Goethe,
76 Cobbett's remarks on Milton are ludicrously characteristic of his defi-
cient Ideality. " It has," says he, "become of late years the fashion to extol
the virtues of potatoes, as it has been to admire the writings of Milton and
Shakspeare. God, almighty and all fore-seeing, first permitting his chief
angel to be disposed to rebel against him ; his permitting him to enlist whole
squadrons of angels under his banners; his permitting the devils to bring
cannon into this battle in the clouds ; his permitting one devil or angel, I
forget which, to be split down the middle, from crown to crotch, as we split
a pig; his permitting the two halves, intestines and all, to go slap up together
again, and become a perfect body ; his then permitting all the devil host to be
tumbled headlonginto a place called hell, ofthe local situation of which, no man
can have an idea ; his causing gates (iron gates, too) to be erected to keep
the devil in; his permitting him to get out, nevertheless, and to come and
What are the abuses of Ideality?
Extravagance of thought, absurd enthusiasm, flightiness,
and a tendency to see every thing through a false medium.
It requires strong reflecting powers, and much self-command,
to restrain the ebullitions of excessive Ideality. Bombast,
in speaking or writing, results from Ideality and Language,
with deficient intellect. This kind of composition is very
apt to impose upon people whose reflecting faculties are
weak and knowledge very limited. With them it passes for
true sublimity ; and the orator, preacher, or poet, who uses
it is looked upon as a first-rate genius. The admiration in
which the absurd rhapsodies of some clergymen, and the
inflated eff'usions of many poetasters are held by a portion
of the public, is a sufficient verification of this remark.
Is this a faculty, whose possession is to be envied?
Judging from the present condition of society, I should say
that this is a doubtful point. Ideality certainly beautifies the
mind, and gives rise to the most exquisite emotions ; but,
unfortunately, dealing, as it does, with much that is imaginary,
its possessor is apt to become disgusted with the grosser
realities he must daily encounter. The refined sensibility
which the faculty, when very active, bestows, is perhaps
rather a curse ; and the occasional happiness resulting from
it, frequently more than counterbalanced by the outrages
which it meets with.
destroy the peace and happiness of his new creation ; his permitting- his son
to take a pair of compasses out of a drawer, to trace the form of the earth;
all this, and, indeed, the whole of Milton's poem, is such barbarous trash,
so outrageously offensive to reason and to common sense, that one is natur-
ally led to wonder, how it can have been tolerated by a people amongst '
whom astronomy, navigation, and chemistry are understood. But it is the
fashion to turn up the eyes when ' Paradise Lost ' is mentioned ; and if you
fail herein, you want taste ; you want judgment even, if you do not admire
this absurd and ridiculous stuflF, when, if one of your relations -wer^ to
write a letter in the same strain, you would send him to a mad-honse, and
take his estate."
Describe the situation of the organ of Wit.
It lies in the anterior, superior, and lateral parts of the
forehead. The sketch here given of the head of Rabelais
exhibits an ample development of it. The width of the upper
part of his forehead is occasioned by the unusual size of the
What is the nature of the faculty?
It may be described as that feeling which gives a tendency
to view things in a ludicrous light, and inspires the sense of
the ridiculous. Combined with Destructiveness, it leads to
In whom would you expect to find the organ large ?
In gay, mirthful, and facetious people ; in those who
possess the power of brilliant and humorous repartee, such as
the celebrated Duchess of Gordon, Lady Wallace, Lord
Norbury, Harry Erskine ; in such writers as the Rev.
Sidney Smith, Sterne, Swift, Voltaire, Piron, and Cervantes;
and in such actors as Garrick, Matthews, and Munden.
Caricaturists, such as Hog-arth, Bunbury, Rowlandson, and
Cruikshank, must also be well endowed with the organ.
Is humour synonymous with wit ?
It is not, although the best species of humour is that which
is well seasoned with wit. Humour depends greatly upon
the manner, wit not at all. A witty remark is witty all tha
world over, by whomsoever made, while what is humourous
from one man, may be quite the reverse from another. '' The
School for Scandal " is a comedy remarkable for wit : " She
Stoops to Conquer " is as remarkable for humour.
What follows when the organ is small?
The person has a natural dislike to drollery. Those who
deal in it he considers buffons, and wit altogether as a piece
of impertinence. He hates absurdity, and everything which
does not square with the most rigid common sense.
What are the abuses of the faculty ?
An incessant tendency to laugh at every thing; an immo-
derate buoyancy and ebullience of spirits, and an inclination
to say witty things on all occasions. Rabelais joked on his
death-bed, and Sir Thomas More on the scaffold ; proofs of
the ruling passion being strong even in death. Wit is a
most dangerous talent to be possessed by a badly-disposed
Are phrenologists agreed concerning the elementary func-
tion of this organ f
No : some are of opinion that it merely gives the ability
to perceive differences, and that this perception is, in certain
circumstances, attended with the emotion of the ludicrous.
The faculty has not yet been satisfactorily analyzed.
Describe the position and function of this organ.
It lies directly above Causality, and on each side of Benevo-
lence. Its function is to produce imitation in general :
mimicry is one of its most active results.
Is the imitative faculty peculiar to the human subject?
No. Some of the inferior animals are well endowed with
it. The monkey, the parrot, the starling, and the mocking-
bird, have the faculty in great perfection, as well as the
organ which manifests it. Speaking of the mocking-bird. Dr.
Mason Good observes, " Its own natural note is delightfully
musical and solemn ; but, beyond this, it possesses an instinc-
tive talent of imitating the note of every other singing bird,
and even the voice of every bird of prey, so exactly as to
deceive the very kinds it attempts to mock. It is, more-
over, playful enough to find amusement in the deception,
and takes a pleasure in decoying smaller birds near it by
mimicking their notes, when it frightens them almostto death,
or drives them away with all speed, by pouring upon them
the screams of such birds of prey as they most dread."
Do not other organs assist that of Imitation in producing
Such undoubtedly is the case. Tune, for instance, adds
much to the power of imitating voices and other sounds.
Wit directs the imitative faculty in its own channel, and
assists it greatly in pourtraying the ludicrous ; while Secretive-
ness enables the mimic to veil his own peculiarities while
representing those of another person. To imitate success-
fully coarse ferocious characters, Destructiveness and general
large size of brain are necessary. Large Self-Esteem assists
in representing pomposity, and large Love of Approbation
in hitting off vanity. Ideality gives richness, beauty, and
delicacy to imitations, while Individuality is very essential to
a successful mimic, by the power of observation which it
Is Imitation necessary for the profession of an actor f
Eminently so. The process by vs'hich the performer merges
his own character in that represented, is effected by means
of Imitation and Secretiveness. All distinguished actors
are good mimics, even in the vulgar sense of the word.
Such was the case with Garrick, Foote, Kean, and a multi-
tude of others. Matthews, who was one of the best ever
known, had a large organ of Imitation. It is found greatly
developed in good ventriloquists.
Is it requisite for any other profession?
It is very necessary for painters — painting, especially por-
traiture, being essentially an imitative art. Most good
painters excel in mimicry, and this results from the great
degree in which they are gifted with the organ. Dramatic
writers require a large endowment of it. In the likenesses of
Shakspeare — whether these be authentic or not — it appears
greatly developed, and so, also, it was in the head of Sir
Walter Scott, whose writings are highly dramatic.
Must a person with large Imitation be necessarily a good
No. The imitative talent may display itself in some
higher walk than in mere mimicry, as in those mentioned
77 The power of a combination of organs in producing' mimicry of the
first order, is well displayed in a gentleman well known to me, and distin-
guished for the brilliancy and versatility of his talents. The organs of
Imitation and Secretiveness are greatly developed in his head. Tune is well
marked, and he has a very fine endowment of Individuality, Wonder, Ide.
ality, and Wit. Benevolence and Love of Approbation are very large;
and there is also a large Destructiveness. The head is of great general
size, and the temperament an extremely active one. In harmony with this
combination, he possesses mimetical talents of the highest order. He is,
EXTERNAL SENSES. 119
ORDER II.— INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.
What faculties are called Intellectual ?
Those which make man and the lower animals acquainted
with the existence, qualities, and relations of objects. They
are divided, though not quite accurately as to details, into
three Genera, — 1st, The External Senses ; 2d, The Internal
Senses or Perceptive Faculties; and 3d, The Reflective
GENUS L— THE EXTERNAL SENSES.
What are the External Senses ?
Those faculties which, by means of organs in direct
relation with the external world, are the inlets of impressions
or sensations from without. Some object to calling the
moreover, an admirable Tentriloquist; and his displays in this walk have a
beauty and supernatural effect — the result of large Ideality and Wonder —
which I have not heard equalled. His large Benevolence enables him to
represent successfully good-humoured, his large Wit ridiculous, and his
large Love of Approbation vain characters. His good endowment of Des-
tructiveness aids him greatly in representing anger and ferocity; and the
general size of his brain gives him the power of infusing energy and bold-
ness, v/hen these are required, into his imitations. In addition to his multi-
farious accomplishments as a mimic, he possesses incredible power over his
face, which he can mould into a variety of different aspects, each accurately
representing a real character ; and so totally unlike are these from one.another,
that while some are striking likenesses of people of twenty-five or thirty,
others correctly resemble men of fourscore. These changes of face add
immensely to the effect of his imitations, more especially as he gives, along
with each particular physiognomy, the exact voice of the person whose
face is represented. His power of transmuting himself, as it were, into
other ^characters, is, indeed, altogether astonishing; and for brilliancy,
variety, intensity, and sustained power, I never saw any one whose imita-
tive talents could be put into competition with his. A few of the numerous
Protean aspects of this incomparable mimic have been sketched for me in a
very spirited manner, by myfriend Mr. Macnee, Portrait Painterin Glasgow.
120 EXTERNAL SENSES.
External Senses intellectual faculties. In answer to this, it
may be stated, that a faculty is a power, and intellectual
faculties are those which know. The sense of feeling
knows. It perceives and discriminates sensations of a
particular kind. True, the nerves do not perceive, but let
it be remembered, that the senses have cerebral organs,
probably at the base of the braiil. Mutilating experiments
seem to prove, that if the parts about the medulla oblongata
are allowed to remain, the senses continue active, notwith-
standing the removal of the hemispheres. As each ex-
ternal sense must have a cerebral organ, there is thus no
absurdity in considering them to be intellectual faculties.
Hoiv many senses are there ?
Hitherto their number has been limited to five, viz. Feel-
ing or Touch, Taste, Smell, Hearing, and Sight; but good
reason has recently been shown for regarding certain nerves
distributed to the muscles, and discovered by Sir Charles
Bell, as having reference to a sixth sense — that of Mechani-
cal Resistance. The following explanation will give some
idea of this sense : — To enable the muscles to execute the
mandates of the will, they are connected with the brain by
the nerves of motion, which are every where distributed
over them. Till very recently, these nerves of motion were
supposed to be simple; but Sir Charles Bell has demonstrated,
that, in reality, each is composed of two nerves, bound up
in the same sheath, but serving different purposes. One,
called the Motor nerve, transmits from the brain to the
muscle the nervous stimulus necessary to produce the
desired contraction and, consequently, motion; while the
other, that of the sense of Mechanical Resistance, gives
the brain information as to the state of the muscle whose
contraction is desired, thus enabling the brain to send to it
the exact amount of nervous stimulus necessary for accom-
plishing the intended effort. By «' the state of the muscles^"
EXTERNAL SENSES. 121
is meant the existing degree of their contraction — in other
words, the force which they are exerting against a resisting
Is it the brain which takes cognizance of impressionsy or
are they perceived by these external organs of the senses ?
The brain undoubtedly. The external organs have no
function, but to convey the impressions to the sensorium.
How is this reconcileable with the fact, that when the
nerve of sight is impaired, vision is destroyed f
The cause is obvious, for if the communicating medium
which carries the impression to the brain is destroyed, it is
not to be supposed that the brain can receive the impression.
Does the brain ever receive, by other means, impressions
similar to those brought to it by the senses ?
It occasionally does, but the impressions are false, and
have no relation to any thing occurring, or existing, without.
Thus, in consequence of some internal stimulus operating in
the brain, the blind have sometimes a distinct impression of
seeing, and the deaf of hearing. The brain, in such cases,
is stimulated in the same way as by the eyes and ears
bringing impressions to it, but those external senses being
incapable of carrying such impressions, the perceptions are,
of course, fallacious. It sometimes happens, in like manner,
that people neither blind nor deaf see apparitions and hear
sounds that have no existence without. This occurs in
consequence of the brain or nerves being affected by disease,
in the same way as they are influenced in health by external
78 See a very able and elaborate essay by Mr. Simpson, in the 43d Num.
ber of the Phrenological Journal, where the functions of the motor nerve,
and nerve of mechanical resistance, are clearly and satisfactorily distin-
giiished and illustrated.
GENUS II THE PERCEPTIVE, OR KNOWING
SPECIES I.— INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES WHICH TAKE COG-
NIZANCE OF THE EXISTENCE OF EXTERNAL OBJECTS
AND THEIR PHYSICAL QUALITIES.
Describe the position of this organ.
It lies in the centre and lower part of trie forehead, im-
mediately above the root of the nose. Both it and Locality
are represented as largely developed in the following sketch
of the head of Pope Martin V. : —
22. Individuality. 27, Locality.
Wliat is the nature of its faculty ?
To give an aptitude for observing and remembering ob-
jects, without any reference to their qualities, or the purposes
s-erved by them. For instance, two persons, one with a
large, the other with a small development, enter a room
together: the first notices every thing presented to his
senses — the chairs, the pictures, the ornaments — and re-
members accurately what he sees; the other has little ten-
dency of the kind. Objects do not strike him with any
thing like the same force, although he may be otherwise a
very superior man. Farther, it gives the memory of facts
which are not events. It recollects, for example, that pla-
tina is heavier than gold, that salt water supports bodies
better than fresh, that the tower of Strasburgh cathedral is
very high, and so on. If we read Peregrine Pickle, it will
enable us to remember that Jack Hatchway had a wooden
leg, and that Commodore Trunnion was blind of an eye,
but the power of recollecting the varied adventures of these
characters depends on another org-an — that of Eventuality.
To what class of persons is a good endotvment of Indi-
viduality especially useful?
It is a valuable faculty to the naturalist, the physician,
the lawyer, and merchant — to all, in short, who are obliged
to load their memory with numerous details.
What is the character of those who have the organ large ?
They are clever observant persons, with a great aptitude
for remembering such facts as we have mentioned. Nothing
escapes them; but they are often incapable of reasoning
upon the knowledge they possess, and very frequently shal-
low; reflection and profundity depending upon a higher
order of faculties.'^s A man who has Individuality and
79 " I accompanied two gentlemen to see a great public work, in one of
whom Individuality was large, and Causality small, and in the other of
whom the proportions of these organs were reversed. The former, in sur-
veying the different objects and operations, put question after question to
the Avorkmen in rapid and long-continued succession ; and nearly all the
information which he carried away with him was acquired in answer to
good reflective organs combined, will be both a quick
observer and a deep thinker. Watt seems to have been a
person of this stamp, and Cuvier was another illustrious
Are nations variously endowed with this organ?
Its size varies much in different nations : it is smaller in the
English than in the French head, and in the Scotch smaller
than in either. The quickness of observation and aptitude
for details possessed by the French, depend upon the ample
endowment which the nation enjoys of this organ.
Do not the frontal sinuses^^ prove an obstacle to the accu-
rate ascertainment of the size of Individuality ?
In the cases of adults and old people, where the sinuses
are large and approximate closely, they do. The best way
to ascertain the dimensions of the organ, is to examine the
heads of young people before the sinuses are formed. Even
in adults, however, deficiency of the organ can never be
specific interiogatories. His mind scarcely supplied a step by its o^ti re-
flection- and did not appear to survey the operations as a systematic whole.
The latter individual looked along time in silence before he pat a question
at all J and when he did ask one, it was, What is the use of that ? The
answer enabled his own mind to supply a multitude of additional ideas ; he
proceeded in his examination, and it was only on arriving at another in-
comprehensible part of the apparatus that he again inquired. At last he
got through; then turned back, and, with the most apparent satisfaction,
contemplated in silence the operations from beginning to end as an entire
system. I heard him afterwards describe what he had seen, and discovered
that he had carried off a distinct comprehension of the principles and obj ects of
the work. It is probable, that a superficial observer would have regarded the
first as the acute, intelligent, and observing man of genius— the person who
noticed every thing, and asked about every thing; and the latter as a dull
uninteresting man, who put only two or three questions, looked heavily^
and said nothing." — Combe's System, Ath edition, vol. ii. p. 582.
80 The frontal sinuses are two hollow spaces — one on each side — above
the root of the nose, formed by the receding of the outer from the inner
table of the skull.
Where is the organ of Form situated?
On each side of the crista galli^i of the ethmoid bone:
it gives width between the eyes, as may be seen in the
heads of artists who are eminent for portraiture. Audubon,
in describing the person of Bewick, the celebrated engraver
in wood, represents his eyes as being placed farther apart
from each other than those of any other man he had ever
seen; and, in accordance with their formation, Bewick's works
indicate a very admirable perception of form. The follow-
ing engraving of Vandyke's head represents a large develop-
ment of the organ : —
What faculty is connected with this organ ?
81 A small perpendicular projection arising- from the upper surface of the
ethmoid bone. The olfactory nerve, or nerve of smell, lies on each side of
the crista galii.
That of perceiving and recollecting forms. People diffef
wonderfully in this respect. One man from taking a glance
at an object will sketch it accurately: another could not
give a correct representation were he to labour for a month.
It is a most material element in the talent for drawing; it
enables us to take likenesses, and is, in fact, absolutely
essential to artists of every description. The organ gives
the power of recollecting faces; of this, George III. was
a good illustration. It also tends, especially if accom-
panied with an active Comparison, to the personification of
abstract ideas ; representing, for instance, time under the
symbol of an hour glass, or an old man with a scythe,
innocence as a dove, sin as a serpent, death as a skeleton,
and so on. It enables the architect to produce noble de-
signs; and by its aid milliners, mantua-makers, and tailors
invent patterns, and thus add to the varieties of dress.
In what nations is it large ?
It is large in the Chinese, which accounts for the minute,,
and almost frivolous accuracy, of their delineations. It is
large also in the French, and, I should suppose, in the
Describe the situation and function of this organ.
It lies over the inner angle of the eye, immediately above
the root of the nose. Its faculty is to give the idea of space,
and the power of appreciating the dimensions of objects j
in other words, the quantity of space which they occupy.
It takes cognizance also of lineal space, or distance. At
first sight, the function of this organ may seem to be in-
volved in that of the preceding; but Size is really a differ-
ent faculty from that which perceives forms. We may have
a very perfect idea of the shape of a body, and a most ia-
accurate one of its bulk. Ask one man the length of a
certain log of wood, and he will tell you with considerable
accuracy by merely looking at it; ask another, and he errs
egregiously. This shows that there must be a special organ
Is a good development useful to an artist ?
It is, by enabling him to give each part of the represen-
tation its proper size; in other words, to keep the propor-
tions accurate. To the landscape-painter it is probably of
great use, the accurate perception of perspective being sup-
posed to depend upon it. To artizans and mechanics in
general, it must be a matter of importance to have a correct
idea of size. Those in whom the faculty is weak, will con-
stantly require to have recourse to compasses and other
measuring instruments, for the purpose of adjusting the
respective dimensions of what they are engaged upon.
Wliat is the peculiar function of this organ 9
The organ of Weight, which adjoins, and lies to the out-
side of Size, is supposed to give the idea of the ponderosity
of bodies, and, in general, of mechanical force and resist-
ance. It is probably to this organ that the nerves of
mechanical resistance convey the idea of the state of the
muscles. If it is largely developed, that idea, so communi-
cated, will be proportionally vivid.
Jji whom is it said to be large f
In those who excel in archery, skating, quoits, and all
who have great facility in judging of momentum and resist-
ance in mechanics. It is probably large in the heads of
skilful pugilists, such as Randal, Ward, and Belcher; also
in those who excel in fencing, such as Roland and Foucart,
and in good equestrians and rope-dancers, as, for instance,
Ducrow, in whom it is amply developed. Children who
walk early are supposed to have it large. It is well marked
in the heads of eminent engineers, and all who have a
talent for the investigation of mechanical forces. Sir Isaac
Newton, Sir David Brewster, Sir John Leslie, and Mr.
Jardine of Edinburgh, the eminent engineer, afford instances
in which it is strikingly developed. It is supposed by some,
to give the idea of the perpendicularity of bodies; at least,
several builders who possess this power in great perfection,
are observed to have it large. This and the preceding
organ are not so well established 82 as some others, and
farther observations are still wanting to place them beyond
the pale of probability. The existence of the faculties,
however, seems unquestionable.
What is the nature of this faculty ?
To communicate the perception of colours. When the
organ is large, this perception is extremely vivid. There is
a love of colours for their own sake, and a remarkable
power of minutely discriminating their nicest shades. Com-
bined with Ideality, it gives a just and delicate perception
of colours. When the organ is small, a diflBculty is experi-
enced in perceiving and distinguishing colours, and in
appreciating their harmony. Such cases are often met
with, and arise from a defective size of this part of the
brain. Many people cannot distinguish brown from olive.
82 When we say that an organ is not well established, it is not to be
xmderstood that we infer there is any faculty without a corresponding
organ, but simply, that phrenologists are yet undecided, whether the cere-
bral part they have been led to regard as the organ, is the just one. If
there be a faculty of Weight, there must be an organ : whether the organ
which has been assigned as the seat of this faculty be the real one, future
sbservations must determine.
green from blue, or yellow from orange ; while others,
though not so defective as this, are unable to perceive
harmony or discord in the arrangement or combination of
May not this depend upon indifferent sight f
It has nothing to do with this, because the persons so
circumstanced have, as respects every thing else, as good
eyes as their neighbours. Many people hear perfectly well,
and yet cannot distinguish one tune from another ; it is the
same with the eyes, as regards colours.
Where is the organ situated ?
At the middle of the eyebrows, between the organs of
Weight and Order. Its position may be seen in the annexed
likeness of Rubens, in whose head it was very large.
83 " Dr. Nicol has recorded a case, where a naval officer purchased a blue
uniform coat and waistcoat, with red breeches to match the blue, and Mr.
Harvey describes the case of a tailor at Plymouth, who, on one occasion
In what class of persons is this organ large ?
In artists distinguished for colouring, as Rubens, TitiaOsr
Claude Lorraine, and Salvator Rosa, and in individuals who
have a passion for brilliant and gaudy dresses. Those who
are particularly fond of flowers and of birds with beautiful
plumage, have probably the organ large : it is very ample
in Montreuil, author of the " French Florist." Poets who
are fond of describing the infinite hues presented by nature,
are well endowed with it.
In which sex is it generally larger ?
In the female. Women, as colourists, have rivalled men,
while for design and the higher walks of painting, they are
greatly inferior. The passion for gaudy ornaments is, be-
sides, stronger in them than in the other sex.s^.
SPECIES II.— INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES WHICH TAKE COG-
NIZANCE OF THE RELATIONS OF EXTERNAL OBJECTS.
May not a large frontal sinus be mistaken for this organ?
repaired an article of dress witli crimson instead of black silk, and on an-
other, patched the elbow of a blue coat Avith a piece of crimson cloth. It
deserves to be remarked, that our celebrated countryman, the late Mr.
Dugald Stewart, had a similar difficulty in distinguishing colours, and the
same remark applies to Messrs. Dalton and Troughton. Mr. Stewart dis-
covered this defect, when one of his family was admiring the beauty of the
Siberian crab-apple, which he could not discover from the leaves, but by its
form and size. Mr. Dalton cannot distinguish blue from pink. Mr. Trough-
ton regards red, ruddy pinks, and brilliant oranges as yellows, and greens
as blues, so that he is capable only of appreciating blue and yellow colours."
— Sir David Brewster's Letters on Natural Magic, p. 31.
84 The organ of Colouring in persons born blind, or who have lost their
sight in infancy, is always deficient. This was first observed by Dr. Spurz.
heim, and I had an opportunity of verifying the fact during a visit, which
I made along with Mr. Combe, to the Glasgow Blind Asylum. The organ
never having been exercised, ceases to grow. It is perfectly reasonable to
infer, that the same law prevails with respect to other organs.
It may; and cases, doubtless, have occurred, where such
a circumstance has led to mistakes : but, generally speaking,
the sinus does not ascend higher than the inferior portion of
Locality; and in children, at any rate, a mistake of this kind
cannot well occur, as the sinus, at that age, is scarcely ever
formed. In the case of adults, no prudent phrenologist
gives an unqualified opinion as to the size of this organ, except
where the flatness or depression of the surface unequivocally
proclaims it to be small.
How may a large sinus be generally discriminated from
The prominences formed by the sinus are irregular in
form, and lie for the most part horizontally; the elevations
occasioned by large Locality are uniform in shape, and
extend obliquely upwards, towards the middle of the forehead.
What is the nature of the faculty connected with this
Locality takes cognizance of the relative positions of
objects;85 it bestows a great aptitude forremembering places
85 " An individual well known in London by the name of • Memory-
Comer Thomson,' is remarkable for an astonishing local memory. In the
space of twenty-four hours, and at two sittings, he drew a correct plan of
the whole parish of St. James, with several streets belonging to the parishes
of Marylebone, St. Ann, and St. Martin. This plan contained all the
squares, streets, lanes, courts, passages, markets, churches, chapels, public
buildings, houses, stables, angles of houses, and a great number of other
objects, as wells, parapets, stones, trees, &c., and an exact plan of Carlton
House and St. James' Palace. He executed all this without the aid of any
plan, without compasses, without books, or any other data. He made out
also, from memory, an exact plan of the parish of St. Andrew, and he
offered to do the same with that of St. Giles in the fields, St. Paul, Covent
Garden, St. Clement, and Newchurch. If a particular house in any given
street was mentioned, he would at once tell what trade was carried on in it,
the position and appearance of the shop, and its contents. Ingoing through
a large hotel, completely furnished, he is able to retain every thing, and
make an inventory from memory; but a dialogue, on the other hand, that
he may have heard, even two or three times, will be quite new to him in the
course of two or three days." — PhrenologicalJoui'nali vol. iv. p. 356.
where we have once been, and a fondness for travelling.
Persons who have it large seldom lose their way, and when
they have once been at a place, can return to'it with peculiar
In what class of persons is the organ large ?
In distinguished voyagers and travellers, such as Colum-
bus, Vasco de Gama, Captain Cook, and Mungo Park; and,
accordingly, in the likenesses of these eminent men, it ap-
pears amply developed. It is large, also, in great geo-
graphers and astronomers, such as Malte Brun, Kepler,
Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Newton. Authors who describe,
and artists who delineate scenery well, have also a good
developments It appears large in Julius Caesar, Michael
Angelo, Tasso, Sir Walter Scott, Professor Wilson, Breugel
the landscape-painter, and M. Jaubert, Professor of Oriental
Languages at the Bibliotheque du Roi, whose passion for
travelling is excessive. In the sketch of Pope Martin, page
122, the organ is seen to be greatly developed. It is large
in the American Indians, and other nomadic tribes; and it
appears highly probable, that the continued exercise to which
it is subjected in these people, actually increases its size.
Have the lower animals the faculty?
Yes. Dogs, by means of Locality, trace their steps
homewards, even for hundreds of miles. The same faculty
it is which directs birds in their periodical migrations, and
the carrier-pigeon in its extensive flights. The way, how-
ever, in which it acts in the lower animals, is often very
obscure, and, indeed, perfectly inexplicable. A dog, for
instance, has been sent many hundred miles by sea, and has
returned over land to the very spot at which it embarked.
There have not been awanting instances where the faculty
has operated on the human subject in a somewhat similar
way, and without the concurrence of sight. Metcalf, the
blind traveller, was an instance of the kind. This remark-
able man, if once in a place, could readily find his way back
again : indeed, we every day observe blind men walking
alone, and in perfect safety, through the most crowded streets,
guided, doubtless, in their gloomy path, by the mysterious
influence of Locality .§6
What are the abuses of Locality/?
An excessive tendency to ramble about, and a total inca-
pacity for remaining long in one place. This is sometimes
so strong, as almost to amount to a disease. Such was the
case with the Abbe Dabrowki of Prague, in whose head the
organ of Locality was enormously large. Dr. Gall met, one
day, at Vienna, a woman, in whom the development was so
great as to amount to a deformity. In her, also, the
passsion for rambling and visiting foreign countries was
Describe the situation and function of this organ.
It lies at the external angle of the eye, and when large,
swells out the frontal bone at that particular spot, and like-
wise, occasionally, gives the outer extremity of the eyebrow
an overhanging and drooping appearance. The function
connected with it is that which gives the power of arithme-
tical calculation. Great differences exist among individuals
86 "It is common,'* says Mr. John Alston, in his Report of the Blind
Asylum at Glasgow, "for adults who reside in distant parts of the city to
come to their emplo3rment without a guide. In farther proof of their capa-
bility of walking without an assistant, a young boy of foui-teen years of
age, whose parents resided six miles from Glasgow, was in the habit of
visiting them. He was accustomed to leave the establishment without an
attendant, traverse the whole length of the city, fin ding his way through the
Calton, Bridgeton, along Rutherglen bridge, through that town and to his
father's house. This he did with as much: correctness as if he had been in
full possession of vision." I am farther informed by the teacher of the
asylum, himself an intelligent blind man, that one of the inmates actually
walked, without a guide, as far as his native place Strathaven, a distance
from Glasgow of seventeen miles. '
as respects the strength of this faculty. Some men can solve,
with little effort, the most difficult questions in arithmetic:
others can hardly manage the simplest, let them labour as
Mention a few individuals remarkable for a large deve-
lopment of the organ.
Zerah Colburn, the American calculating boy, George
Bidder, and Jedediah Buxton — all of them distinguished for
their extraordinary arithmetical talents, are instances in
point. The same remark applies to Playfair, Leslie, Inigo
Jones, Wren, Hutton, Euler, and Kepler: and these distin-
guished men were all remarkable for the extent to which
they possessed the computative faculty. The annexed
likeness of Jedediah Buxton represents the appearance often
presented by a large development of the organ.87
87 Some calculating boys lose their arithmetical talent when they grow
up. Such was the case Avith a relative of ray own, who at the age of seven
possessed great natural capabilities in this way, but in four or five years he
Is this organ larger in some nations than in others ?
It is. In the Negro and Esquimaux head the organ is
small, and these people are generally very deficient in
arithmetical talent. Humboldt mentions, that the Chaymas,
a South American tribe, have great difficulty in comprehend-
ing any thing which belongs to numercial relation. He
says, that he never saw a man among them who might not
be made to say that he was eighteen or sixty years of age;
and he adds, that the corner of the eye is sensibly raised up
towards the temple. Wafer observed the same remarkable
want of calculating power among the Indians at the Isthmus
May this faculty coexist vigorously with a weak general
This may undoubtedly happen. The best arithmetician
I ever knew was a man of a very feeble understanding; and
even idiots are sometimes excellent computists. Knowing »
this fact, it is very wrong to accuse people of being dull or j
stupid, merely because it so happens that they are incapable '
of learning arithmetic. Some men of distinguished talent
cannot even master the multiplication-table; and one of the \
first phrenologists and philosophical writers of the present \
day is so deficient in the computative faculty as to be unable '
to add up his own cash-book. In Dr. Gall, likewise, this
talent was exceedingly feeble. Fossati observes, that he
never saw him master a process in simple multiplication or
division that was at all complicated.
lost them, and is now a very indifferent calculator. Zerah Colburn, too, is
an instance of the same kind. " Previous to the wonderful manifestations
of arithmetical power exhibited by young- Colburn, he had been afflicted with
cliorea, and was at the time very nervous, and sometimes evidently suffered
pain when called on to exhibit his powers ; and when he recovered his
health he lost his extraordinary calculating- T^owen."— Practical Phrenology,
by Silas Jones, Boston, 1836 — I have little doubt that Colburn 's organ of
Number was overworked, and thus rendered apathetic.
Will a large organ of Number make a person a good
No : other faculties are necessary, although Number is a
verj' useful one. It was thought, that some calculating
boys, from the force of their arithmetical powers, would have
excelled in mathematics, but the result did not correspond
with the anticipation. As mathematics treat of configura-
tion and space or dimension, as well as of number, the
organs of Form and Size are indispensable to eminence in
Is this faculty possessed by animals?
The point has never been correctly ascertained. Some
philosophers imagine that the magpie possesses the power
of computation to a certain extent. Le Roy, for instance,
supposes, that the creature counts three, while Dupont de
Nemours extends its talents, in this respect, as far as nine.
Such assertions, however, must be based on little better than
Where is this organ situated?
It lies between Colouring and Number, and is marked 20
in the bust.
What is its function f
To bestow a love of order and arrangement. When the
organ is very large, there is a punctilious nicety about the
manner in which things are placed, and the order in which
they are done. The person is annoyed by confusion, and
apt to be dainty and finical. He is an ardent admirer of
the well known maxims, " Say every thing in its proper way;
88 It is said that a dog must have this faculty, because it discovers if one
of its young has been removed; but this, as Spurzheim remarks, it may per.
ceive from the want of the individual so carried away, -ndthout counting the
number of the vi^hole.
put every thing in its proper place; and do every thing in its
proper time." His minute love of arrangement is not less
annoying to those in whom the faculty is feeble, than their
want of systematic regularity is to him. When the faculty
is weak the reverse is the case, and there is a marked
indiflPerence to order and arrangement. Confusion and
want of neatness give no annoyance : the person is apt to be
careless in his dress, disorderly in his household, and, unless
his Conscientiousness be strong, unpunctual to appointments.
To what class of persons is a large organ of Order espe-
To the mistress of a family, and particularly to domestic
servants : it is essential to keepers of museums, to gardeners,
and all who have the charge of establishments of any kind.
Is the organ large in authors distinguished for the pre-
cision and order of their writings ?
Not necessarily: its powers seem to be confined to phy-
sical arrangement. Causality and Comparison are the
chief systeraatizers. Such authors as Linnseus and Cuvier,
were indebted to these organs, and not to the one under
review, for their great power of classification.
Describe the position and function of this organ.
It lies in the centre of the forehead, above Individuality;
and gives the power of recollecting events and phenomena.
Books that abound in incident, such as Don Quixote,
Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver's Travels, and Roderick Random,
are characterised by marked Eventuality; and persons who
have the faculty strong, will remember vividly the occur-
rences related in such works. These persons are considered
clever, in the common meaning of the term : they pick up a
knowledge of events readily, although it may so happen that
they are perfectly unable to reason thereupon, or turn it to
any proper use.
Does Eventuality assist in acquiring a language ?
No; but it will enable us to recollect any particular events
recorded in that language. The power of acquiring lan-
guages depends on a special organ.
What does inquisiiiveness depend upon ?
Upon Eventuality and Individuality in excess, generally
combined with Wonder. If Secretiveness is conjoined,
the inquisitive tendency will be still greater.
Will a person with large Eventuality , be necessarily
Not in the common acceptation of the term, which is
usually employed to designate a species of impertinence.
If his reflecting powers be deficient, he will be apt to show
a meddling, inquisitive turn about paltry matters; if strong.
he will despise this, and direct the faculty to the acquisition
of really useful knowledge. Still, it is the same power at
work, only in the one case employed about trifles, in the
other on matters of importance.
From what does gossip arise ?
From large Eventuality and Language, with small Secre-
tiveness. The person has a great craving to know every
thing which is going on, and an equally great craving to
divulge it: he is constantly talking of the afl'airs of his
neighbours. Gossips have almost always small brains, and
are destitute of a liberal education. A large-brained and
well educated person, despises the paltry habit of retailing
all the chit-chat which he hears, and is not likely to become
addicted to this vice. Self-Esteem is often strongly manifested
by gossips, who are generally envious, jealous creatures.
Illustrate by some examples the difference between Indivi-
duality and Eventuality.
Individuality concerns itself with what exists, Eventuality
with what happens, Substantive nouns express the objects
of the former, active verbs those of the latter. When I say
that Lord John Russel is a little man, that the Duke of
Wellington has a Roman nose, or that camels have
humps upon their backs, it is Individuality which suggests
these remarks : when, however, I observe that after being
challenged by Sir Robert Peel, Mr. O'Connell contrived to
get himself arrested, and then made a vow in heaven never
to fight duels; that the Houses of Parliament were burned
in consequence of overheating the flues; or that Earl
Spenser rears the fattest cattle in England, then the obser-
vations are suggested by Eventuality. We may in another
manner exhibit the operation of the two faculties. If I
see a sportsman standing in a field with his gun levelled,
an object is presented to my Individuality. If he draws the
trigger, discharges the gun, and kills a bird, these are all
occurrences or events in the process of active operation,
and are recognised by Eventuality.
Where is the organ of Time situated?
In the middle region of the forehead, on each side of
Eventuality. It is not considered to be fully established,
but the existence of the faculty is sufficiently manifest.
What talent depends upon the organ f
The perception of duration, or time. It enables those who
are well endowed with it, to keep time in dancing and in
music, to judge accurately of the intervals which elapse
between given periods, and to conjecture the hour of the day
with comparative precision, without consulting the clock : it
is essential to good versification. People differ in all these
particulars, and the differences depend on the degree in which
they are gifted with this organ.
Mention some other ways in which Time may manifest itself.
In the accuracy with which a regiment of soldiers fires at
the word of command; or goes through the manual and
platoon exercise, by observing the movements of the fugle-
man. In those who keep bad time in performing such exer-
cises the faculty is feeble. It is also feeble in those who
acquire with difficulty the art of dancing, and the same remark
applies to bad timists in music.
Where does this organ lie ?
In the lateral portion of the forehead, outside of Time,
and immediately above Order and Number. The position
of the organ is shown in the annexed portrait of Handel,
in whose head it was greatly developed.
What function is connected with it?
The feeling for music, and, when accompanied with Time,
Imitation, &c.,the talent for playing on instruments, or singing
with skill and success. It is large in all who have a decided
musical genius, such as Gliick, Weber, Kossini, Malibran,
Catalani, and Pasta.^^
Is it confined to the human species f
No : birds have the organ and its accompanying faculty.
It is distinctly marked in the nightingale, the thrush, the
linnet, and other singing birds. It is larger in the head of
the male singing bird than in the female, which accounts
for the superior power of song possessed by the former. In
birds which do not sing, it is not similarly developed. If we
compare the head of the hawk, the crow, or the eagle, with
those of the tribe of songsters, the difference will at once
appear obvious in the region of Tune.
May not the inability of certain birds to sing, depend upon
the unsuitable organization of the throat?
This objection has no force; because whenever nature has
bestowed the talent for any thing, she has, at the same time,
endowed the animal with the apparatus for exercising that
talent. If the raven had the cerebral organization of
the nightingale, nature, which does nothing in vain, would
have given it the vocal apparatus for song.^o The hawk is
89 "The faculty gives the perception of melody; but this is only one
ingredient in a genius for music. Time is requisite to give a just perception
of intervals. Ideality to communicate elevation and refinement, and Secre-
tiveness and Imitation to produce expression; while Constructiveness,
Form, Weight, and Individuality, are necessary to supply mechanical expert-
ness :— qualities all indispensable to a successful performer. Even the
largest organ of Tune will not enable its possessor to play successfully on
the harp, if Weight be deficient; the capacity of communicating to the
string the precise vibratory impulse requisite to produce each particular note
will then be wanting."— Comae's System, Ath edition, vol. ii. p. 533.
90 An ingenious friend has stated in objection to this, that some men
have great musical talent, and yet cannot sing well, for want of good voice.
a ferocious, sanguinary animal, and it is armed accordingly
with formidable claws, and a powerful beak, wherewith to
exercise its particular instincts. Of what use would such
armoury be to a timid creature like the dove? or what would
the hawk be, were it weaponless like the dove ? In such a
case, the lust for blood and thirst for destroying, which have
been bestowed for the purpose of gratification, would be
unaccompanied with any means of carrying these intentions
of nature into effect.
Is there any I'eason to suppose, that the British will ever
equal the Germans and Italiansin music?
None. The organ in the British head is decidedly smaller,
so that, although an individual may now and then arise,
capable of contesting the palm with the Haydns, the Ros-
sinis, and the Handels, still, as a people, they can never
compete with these nations in musical talent. It is a common
remark that their deficiency of talent for music, is owing to
the taste for this accomplishment never having been suffi-
ciently cultivated in Great Britain : but why has it not been
so cultivated? Simply because the British are not emi-
Such an objection, however, is more specious than solid. The chief purpose
of voice is speech, and man is not, like the nightingale, merely a singing
animal, or, like the hawk, merely an animal formed for destructive pur-
poses. Supposing a man to have a good development of Tune, together
with an indifferent voice, it cannot be said that his musical talent is thrown
away upon him, and that, because he cannot sing, he cannot turn it to good
purpose. Man has faculties w hich have enabled him to invent and construct
instruments, from which he draws music far surpassing in sublimity and
beauty, that of his own voice. T am not aware that Weber or Beethoven
could sing well j yet what exquisite delight did not these men derive from
their organ of Tune, and what wonderful works did it not stimulate them
to produce ? Another consideration is, that while birds, by living in accord-
ance with the laws of nature, have their functions, and among others the
voice, in a comparatively perfect condition, man, whose unnatural mode of
life, and disregard of these laws, have tended much to injure his capabiMties,
does not generally enjoy that perfection of the vocal power, which, had he
acted in accordance with the organic laws, he probably would have possessed .
nently musical. If the national talent lay decidedly in this
particular walk, they would naturally cultivate it, and be
able to cope with the Germans and Italians.
Would you expect the organ large in every good per-
former on a musical insirumerit?
No. A fair development, aided by an active tempera-
ment and great perseverance, may make a very good
performer indeed; but one of the highest order, such as
Paganini, requires an ample organ of Tune. To eminent
original composers, as Mozart, Haydn, and Auber, a large
development is indispensablc^i
On what do differences of taste in music depend?
On the state of the other organs. A person w^iose
Veneration and Tune are both large, will naturally prefer
sacred music : large Combativeness and Tune will induce a
preference to martial music, and so on.
Is the organ of Tune fully established?
The facts in support of it are so numerous, that this ap-
pears to be the case. The discrimination of the size of the
organ is, however, so difficult, that, except in cases of
extreme development or deficiency, mistakes are frequently
committed in estimating it. This is particularly' the case
with sciolists in Phrenology, who are disposed to make a
display of their skill more frequently with regard to this
91 A lady incidentally, and without any reference to Phrenology, in-
formed me, that her female servant could not distinguish one tune from
another, although her hearing was perfect. She farther mentioned, as a
curious circumstance, that the woman was constantly committing mistakes
when the bells rung, as she was unable to distinguish the door bell from the
dining-room one, although e%'ery other person in the family could do so
with ease, so very different were the tones of the two bells. On examining
the woman's head, I fouud the organ of Tune remarkably deficient, there
being a flatness, or rather a depression in the site of the organ. I took a
cast of her forehead, a copy of which is in the museum of the Edinburgh
organ, than in relation to any other. In judging of musical
talent, unless great attention is paid to the training which
the organ has received, error is very apt to be committed.
Temperament, also, has a most important effect ; and it
ought not to be forgotten, that many persons sing and per-
form respectably, from little else than Imitation and practice.
WJiat external sign indicates a good endowment of Lan-
Prominence of the eyes, or their depression vertically.
This arises from the position of the organ on the posterior
and transverse part of the upper orbitary plate,^^ immedi-
ately over the eye. When the organ is large, this plate is
necessarily lower than in other cases, and the eyes are thus
pushed forward and downward. In the sketch here given
of Van Swieten's head, we have a good idea of a large
development of Language.
92 The orbitary plates are portions of tlie frontal bone, from which they
ffo oflf backwards at right angles, forming a roof to the eye, and supporting
the anterior lobes of the brain.
What talent depends on this organ f
That of verbal memory. The person has a great knack
at recollecting words : he acquires languages with facility,
learns readily by heart, and is generally a great talker.
When Imitation is large, the power of pronouncing a
foreign tongue after the manner of the natives is greatly
increased. When small, the individual may easily acquire
the language, and speak it with grammatical accuracy, but
his pronunciation will be defective. Some people who
have an admirable talent for acquiring languages, can never
pronounce them well, owing to feebleness in the imitative
Mai/ a person be eminent as a linguist, and yet not re-
markable for the prominency of his eyes ?
He may; and hence mistakes are now and then committed
by the inexperienced. If the organs of Locality, Weight,
Size, Colouring, and Order, be very large, and the eye-
brows full and overhanging, the eyes will appear much less
prominent than in other circumstances.
Do prominent eyes always indicate talkativeness or verbal
Always, except when the prominency is occasioned by
fat, as is sometimes the case with corpulent people, especially
if they be of dissipated habits. These, however, are merely
exceptions to a well established general rule.
Why do very ordinary men often surpass at school, those
who prove much their superiors in after life f
This generally arises from their possessing a good de-
velopment of Language, Individuality, and Eventuality,
especially the first. Men of great talent are often only
moderately endowed with Language, while people, other-
wise common-place, have frequently the faculty in great
perfection. '* When the doctrines of Phrenology come to
be generally understood, the admiration excited by the
possession of a great number of dead and foreign languages
will be much diminished. It will then be considered merely
as evidence of a large organ of Language, and as no evi-
dence of superior general talents." s*
What happens when the organ is large ?
The person is a formidable linguist, or most insufferable
talker, perhaps both. People of this sort have an absolute
pleasure in hearing themselves speak. They are, literally,
talking-machines, and are rendered uncomfortable if not
allowed to indulge in their favourite occupation. Their
style of writing and speaking is apt to be diffuse, and
destitute of condensation : they can scribble whole pages, and
talk by the hour, about absolutely nothing.
What results from a small development ?
Difficulty in acquiring languages; hence indifferent scholar-
ship; a want of facility in expression, and a disposition to
be taciturn. The writings of such persons contain hardly a
useless word, so that they are often more valuable and
interesting than the works of the other class.
Mention a few eminent persons in whom the organ was
Swift, Haller, Leibnitz, Cobbett, and Edmund Burke.
It appears large in the likenesses of Milton, who was a distin-
guished scholar, and a great master in his native language
— witness "Paradise Lost," which, as a piece of mere verbal
composition, and without reference to the sublimity of its
ideas, is, perhaps, the most perfect work of modern times.
Is the organ of Language ever unnaturally excited?
In fever, mania, and drunkenness, this sometimes
happens; the consequence of which is an inordinate propen-
sity to talk, although the person may be, at other times, very
jtaciturn. There have been instances, where, from the ex-
94 Silas Jones' Phrenology.
citement of the organ during- the delirium of fever, a language
learned in early life, but afterwards forgotten, has been
recalled, so that the person could speak it fluently, only,
however, to be forgotten so soon as the excitement by which
it had been resuscitated wore away. Cases where the
memory of Languages is lost, from disease of this organ, are
GENUS III.— REFLECTIVE FACULTIES.
What is the nature of the Rejiective faculties ?
To produce the quality of reasoning or reflection. They
compare one thing with another, and trace the relation
subsisting between effects and their causes.
Where is this organ situated?
In the centre of the upper region of the forehead, imme-
diately above Eventuality.
What is the nature of its faculty?
It enables us to trace resemblances and perceive analogies.
Homer compares the eloquence of Ulysses to the soft falling
of the snow flakes, and naturalists speak of the analogy
95 I know, a case of this kind. A literary* gentlemen was actively
employed for some months in the compilation of a French and English
dictionary. He performed his laborious task, but, at the end of it, so com-
pletely had his organ of Language been overworked by its long continued
exertions, that he actually lost the memory of words. His knowledge of
Greek, Latin, and French, which was very extensive, vanished from his
mind, nor did he recover it till the energy of the exhausted organ was
restored to its wonted power, by being allowed to rest. Some years ago,
when labouring under a fever, accompanied with violent cerebral action, I
lost, for some days, to a considerable extent, thememory of words, although
in all other respects, the mind was perfectly sound. If I wished a draught
of water, I knew the thing wanted, but could not name it.
subsisting between the animal and vegetable kingdoms.
It is the organ in question which associates these objects or
qualities together, and traces similitude between them.
Persons in whom it is large will trace a resemblance or
affinity between objects or events which would entirely elude
the observation of others with a smaller endowment. It is
the well from which gushes forth figurative language; the
grand fountain of similes, metaphors, and analogies. John
Bunyan likens the christian's progress to that of a traveller
in a dangerous country; death he represents as like the
passage over a river from one country to another. In the
scriptures, Christ is compared to the brazen serpent which
Moses lifted up, and which was a remedy to the Israelites
for the wounds inflicted by serpents. The universities have
been compared to beacons moored in the stream of time,
which serve only to mark the rapidity with which the tide of
improvement flows past them. An author who arrives at
the end of a dry dissertation, of which he is heartily tired,
and is about to commence the discussion of an agreeable
subject, likens himself to a traveller who has long toiled
through a barren and disgusting track, and at length, after
much labour, has reached the summit of an eminence from
which he looks back on the country where his toils were
endured, and sees before him with gladness the inviting
territory now to be traversed. The life of a wicked man
flows like a polluted stream. A beautiful woman without
virtue is like a painted sepulchre. As iron sharpeneth iron,
so is the face of a man to his friend. The people which sat
in darkness saw a great light. Frail man ! his days are like
the grass. The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed.
All the foregoing similitudes and analogies are the result of
Does this family take cognizance of all kinds of com-
No. Each intellectual faculty compares in matters strictly
relating to itself. Thus, Form compares forms, Colour-
ing colours, Size magnitudes, Tune the modulations of
sound, &c. When Milton speaks of Satan standing " like Tene-
riffe or Atlas unremoved," or likens his shield to the full
moon, it is Form that suggests the resemblance, and not Com-
parison. The province of the latter is to perceive analogies
between objects falling under the cognizance of two different
faculties, between ideas in themselves essentially different.
When Coleridge, for instance, addresses Mont Blanc as a
kingly spirit throned among the hills, he does so under the
influence of the present faculty. If we hear music, it is
Tune which compares the different notes and judges of their
harmony or discord; but if we contrast together tunes and
colours, if we say that the sober livery of Autumn is like a
strain of plaintive music, it is then the faculty of Comparison
which is brought into play.
Does the organ determine the nature of the similes which
No. This depends upon our other faculties. Thus, a
person whose Tune is very powerful will draw similitudes
from music; another, with ample Colouring, will deduce them
from the hues of nature, &c.; a third, with Constructiveness
well developed, may have recourse to comparisons from
the steam engine. The present organ, therefore, although
it gives the talent and the aptitude for indulging in similes,
metaphors, and analogies, gives no farther. The character of
these is determined by other powers.
In what class of people may we expect to find the organ
In popular poets, orators, preachers, and philosophical
writers. In them the faculty is highly useful, from the
abundant supply of imagery, and the wide and varied range of
illustration which it affords. It appears large in Kant, Pitt, and
Dr. Chalmers, and remarkably in Mr. Thomas Moore, whose
prolific power of comparison, as displayed in " Lalla Rookh,"
" The Loves of the Angels," and other poems, is unsurpassed,
or rather unequalled. Roscoe, Henry IV. Goethe, Burke,
and Curran, show a large development. The same remark
applies to La Fontaine, the celebrated fabulist; and, accord-
ing to Dr. Gall, children in whom the comparative faculty is
strong, prefer fables to every other kind of instruction. The
organ is better developed in some nations than in others.
It is generally large in the Hindoo head, and the figurative
character of the language of that people has long bees
96 In a gentleman whose case is related in the 36tli number of thePhfeno-
logical Journal, the activity of Comparison is so strong', that it prompts him
Describe the position and function of this organ f
It lies in the forehead, on each side of Comparison, and
the purpose served by it is to give the idea of connexion
between cause and effect. He who is well endowed with it
and Comparison, possesses a severe and logical intellect :
he traces results from their origin, and is a sound reasoner.
Men of this stamp are never shallow; they constitute the
profound thinkers so rarely to be met with in society.
Is this a valuable faculty?
With the exception of Conscientiousness, it is, perhaps,
the most valuable of the whole series. It is the faculty on
which mainly depends the intellectual greatness of Locke,
Bacon, Gall, and other illustrious names. The organ was
to compare names with physical objects: — Thus, the words Combe, Cox,
and Simpson, resemble the following figures : —
Combe. Cox. Simpson.
He has also an irresistible tendency to compare sounds with colour.
When a musical instrument is played, one tone seems to him to resemble
blue, another green, another purple, and so on. When this individual was
attending Dr. Gall's lectures in Paris, some years ago, the Doctor was so
struck with the appearance of the organ of Comparison in his forehead,
that he pointed it out to his class, as an instance of great development,
having, at the moment, no knowledge whatever of the person, or the degree
in which he was endowed with the comparative faculty. I know a gentle-
man who has the same tendency to compare sounds and colours, and these
are the only two I have ever met with. A case is related of a blind boy,
who, on being asked what like the colour of scarlet was, replied, that it
resembled the sound of a trumpet. In this instance, it is possible that the
association of ideas may have arisen from the boy being informed that
soldiers wore scarlet coats, and that the trumpet was employed to call them
very large in the heads of these great men. Kant, Dr.
Thomas Brown, Fichte, Mendelsohn, and indeed, all men of
eminently philosophical minds, exhibit an ample development
of it. The frontispiece is an accurate likeness of the great
founder of the phrenological system, in whose mind the
faculty under consideration was a predominating feature.
The forehead is finely developed. Language, Imitation,
Causality, Comparison, and Benevolence are very conspicuous.
It is the head of a man of high intellect, much decision of
purpose, and great nobleness of disposition.
To what pursuits does the organ in question lead?
To abstract philosophical studies in general. A strong
love of logic and metaphysics is one of its tendenciesjindeed,
no person can be great as a reasoner without it.
Is it necessary in the physical sciences f
As necessary there as in the moral. Individuality gives
us cognizance of existences, and Eventuality of occurrences,
but it is Causality, joined with Comparison, which enables
us to reason upon them, and turn them to proper use. The
organ is large in the heads of Playfair, Cuvier, Guy Lussac,
and other eminent natural philosophers. Great reflecting
intellect, however, does not seem to be necessary for mathe-
Is Causality necessary for historical writing?
Eminently so. Without this faculty, history would be a
mere series of details, without dependence or connexion.
The springs which moved the different personages, and
promoted the different events, would never be investigated,
and the whole work would present a series of effects without
97 It is a common notion that mathematics strengthens the reasoning
powers. The erroneousness of this opinion is very successfully charac-
terized by Mr. Combe. See the fourth edition of his System of Phrenology,
vol. ii. p. 503. The reflecting intellect of some distinguished mathema-
ticians has been by no means remarkable. Ex. Gr. Sir John Leslie.
any suitable causes. The works of all great historians, such
as Gibbon, Hume, Robertson, display a rich vein of Causality;
nor can it be doubted, that in the heads of these eminent
men the organ was amply developed.
Is it necessary for poetry?
No; but poetry is vastly improved by the interfusion of a
philosophic spirit derived from Causality. The faculty
reigned in the sublime intellects of Milton and Shakspeare,
and prevails every where through their mighty works. There
is a great deal of Causality in the writings of Pope, Dry den,
and Wordsworth : it gives a philosophic hue to poetry, with-
out impairing its imaginative character.
Does a person with distinguished reasoning powers always
appear great in general society?
No. Men with good perceptive, or knowing organs, often
appear to much greater advantage than those with the higher
powers of mind conferred by eminent reflective faculties.
A shallow, smart person, would be thought far more highly
of by the bulk of mankind, than a Kant, a Bacon, or a
Spurzheim. Brilliant men are not often profound : the cir-
cumstance, indeed, of a person appearing very great in a
miscellaneous company, may generally be taken as an evi-
dence that his reflective faculties are not of a very high order.
What is the cause of this ?
The reflective faculties of men, in general, are not strong,
and they can neither appreciate nor comprehend profound
reasoning. Good perceptive organs being more common,
their manifestations are easily understood, and better relished;
whence quick, but shallow men, strike the common mind
more forcibly than deep thinkers, and are more likely to
succeed in the common aff'airs of life.^s
98 Great intellects require great occasions to appear advantageously. A
smart, superficial, talkative, polite man, with a fund of anecdote, much
plausibility, and of a money-making turn, may prove more successful as a
What happens when Causality is small 9
In this case the arguments of such persons are illogical
and inconsecutive. They experience great difficulty in
tracing effects from their causes, and are incapable of any
thing like deep and connected reasoning. From their feeble
appreciation of the force of evidence, it is extremely difficult
to convince such persons of the truth of Phrenology.
What are the abuses of Causality f
An excessive tendency to metaphysical speculations, to
the neglect of the practical pursuits of life. Kant seems
an instance of the abuse of this faculty. He is very often
profound, but speculative and abstract, and often unintel-
ligible. In his head, the reflective organs greatly predomi-
nate over all others. Causality, however, is far less likely
to be abused than any other faculty, if we except Benevo-
lence and Conscientiousness.
Has Causality any influence on the formation of religious
A very important influence, not inferior, perhaps, to that
tradesman, than one whose intellectual calibre is of a far higher grade.
Supposing Shakspeare, Locke, and Newton, to be associated together as
linen-drapers, it is very evident that the firm would soon become bankrupt.
Not one half of the faculties of the partners finding occupation in this
business, they would be irresistibly led to direct them into some channel
where they would meet with the requisite exercise. Instead of serving
customers, and keeping a sharp look out upon expenditure and receipts,
each member of the concern would be occupied in such a manner as to en-
sure its speedy ruin. We may conceive Shakspeare, while presiding over
the ledger, taking a flight to the court of Macbeth, or fleeting with Ariel
or Titania upon the clouds ; Locke, while purchasing goods, sadly perplexed
with the doctrine of innate ideas j and Newton, in the act of measuring oft
a yard of linen, absorbed in calculating the dimensions of a planet. The
business, in short, would straightway go to wreck, and the illustrious trio
of would-be-drapers figuring in the Gazette. The predominating faculties
always demand gratification, and it is wrong to bring up a man of great
powers of mind to any pursuit which does not permit of their being safely
indulged. Many men of superior talent make bad shop-keepers, who would
have excelled as physicians, barristers, or divines — these professions giving
ampler scope to the higher faculties of the mind than a mere trade.
of Veneration and Wonder. Causality, enlightened by-
knowledge, leads mankind to infer a presiding First Cause,
from the marks of wisdom and design which every where
present themselves in the material universe. Veneration
prompts to revere the Being whose existence is thus in-
ferred: while Wonder is the source of that astonishment
and admiration with which we contemplate His existence
What is meant hy the temperaments f
The temperaments are certain states of constitution which
are found to have a great effect on the energy and activity
of the brain, and system in general-
How are the temperaments classified f
The pure temperaments are four in number, the Lym-
phatic, the Sanguine, the Bilious, and the Nervous, but they
are often found in combination; thus we have the Sanguine-
Lymphatic, the Nervous-Bilious, the Bilious-Nervous, the
Nervous-Sanguine, &c. Sometimes even three tempera-
ments are united, and then we have the Nervous-Sanguine-
Bilious, the Nervous-Sanguine-Lymphatic, and so on.^^
What are the characteristics of the pure temperaments ?
In the Lymphatic, the body is full, the flesh soft and
flabby, the hair and complexion pale, the eyes expression-
less, the pulse slow, and the person indolent, inanimate,
loutish, and insipid. In the Sanguine, the hair is red or of
a light chesnut tinge, the countenance florid, the eyes blue
and sparkling, the muscles large and tolerably firm, and the
spirits lively and boisterous. The Bilious is characterized
by dark hair and coarse skin. The muscles are less than in
the Sanguine, but harder, and there is little fat. Altogether,
this temperament possesses much energy, and is the best
for sustaining the system under great and long protracted
99 We place the name of the predominating temperament first. For in-
stance, the Nervous- Bilious implies that the former preponderates, and the
Bilious- Nervous the reverse. We often say, that a person is 60 Bilious,
and 40 Nervous, or 80 Sanguine, and 20 Lymphatic, &c., to give some idea
of the proportions which he possesses of each temperament.
efforts.ioo The Nervous temperament is distinguished by
fine silky hair, pale complexion, small muscles, sharp fea-
tures, and often delicate health. It is the most excitable
and sensitive of all the temperaments; but its efforts, though
rapid and vivacious, are soon exhausted.i^i
What is the character of the mixed temperaments f
This depends uj)on that of the pure ones out of which
they are formed; thus the Nervous-Bilious combines in
100 This temperament is improperly named. There is no connexion
whatever between it and an excess of bile, as might be inferred from its
denomination, and as was ignorantly supposed by the ancients. The term
Fibrous more distinctly indicates its character, and by this name it ought
to be known.
101 *' Who," says Cobbett, in the third letter of his ' Adrice to Young
Men,' is to tell whether a girl will make an industrious woman ? How is
the purblind lover, especially, to be able to ascertain whether she whose
smiles, and dimples, and bewitching lips, have half bereft him of his senses ;
how is he to be able to judge, from any thing that he can see, whether the
beloved object will be industrious or lazy? Why, it is very difficult."
*' There are, however, certain outward signs, which, if attended to with
care, will serve as pretty sure guides. And first, if you find the tongue
lazy, you may be nearly certain the hands and feet are the same. By
laziness of the tongue, I do not mean silence ; I do not mean an absence of
talk, for that, in most cases, is very good ; but I mean a slovr and soft utter,
ance ; a sort of sighing out of the words, instead of speaking them ; a sort
of letting the sounds fall out as if the party were sick at stomach. The
pronunciation of an industrious person is generally quick and distinct, and
the voice, if not strong, firm at least. Not masculine; as feminine as
possible : not a croak nor a bawl, but a quick, distinct, and sound voice."
•' Look a little also at the labours of the teeth, for those correspond with
the other members of the body, and with the operations of the mind." —
" Get to see her at work upon a mutton chop, or a bit of bread and cheese,
and if she deal quickly with these, you have a pretty good security for that
activity, tliat stirring industry, without which a wife is a burden instead
of a help." " Another mark of industry is a quick step, and a somewhat
heavy tread, showing that the foot comes down with a hearty good will."
" I do not like, and I never liked, yoiur sauntering, soft-stepping girls, who
move as if they were perfectly indifferent to the result."
The above is an excellent illustration of the difference between the Lym-
phatic and the more active temperaments. It is sketched by the hand of a
master, and truth has guided every stroke of the i)encil.
itself the qualities of the Nervous and the Bilious, and so
of the others.
WTiat temperament is most likely to be found in combi-
nation with each other ?
Those which most clearly resemble each other are the
most likely to be united : hence the Lymphatic and San-
guine, and the Nervous and Bilious often go together.
Sometimes, however, we find the most dissimilar in combi-
The state of the brain^ then, is influenced by the prevail-
ing temperament ?
So much so, that in inferring character, the temperament
requires always to be taken into consideration. Supposing
a lymphatic person to possess the same size and shape of
brain as a bilious one, he will manifest far less energy and
activity of mind.
What does this arise from ?
The brain, in common with the rest of the body, partakes
of the functional energy or inactivity communicated by the
temperament. In the Lymphatic, for instance, the blood
being sent with little energy to the brain, that viscus is
naturally torpid in its actions. In the Sanguine and the
Bilious, the reverse is the case : the pulse is stronger and
quicker, a proof of the greater activity of the circulating
system; and hence the brain is more vigorously stimulated,
receiving from this smart passage of the blood through it
superior activity and pow^er of function.
Does the torpor of the Lymphatic temperament depend
solely on inactivity of circulation ?
It is considered that it may also, in a great measure, arise
from the blood being of a more watery description than in
the other varieties. At least, it is well known, that in the
Lymphatic there is a great predominance of the glandular
system, and of the aqueous secretions.
Does quality of brain correspond with the excellence of
the temperament ?
There is reason to suppose that it does. The texture of
the cerebral system is conjectured to be very fine in the
Nervous temperament, and the reverse in the Lymphatic. i"^-
Does dissection demonstrate this ?
In all likelihood it would do so, although the subject has
not yet been sufficiently attended to by anatomists to enable
us to speak decidedly. This much is certain, that the
texture of the skull is influenced by the prevailing tempera-
ment, being fine and compact in the Nervous, coarse and
open-grained in the Lymphatic. Moreover, the muscles
are firm in the former, and flabby in the latter.
Do particular temperaments prevail more in some nations
than in others ?
Yes. The Lymphatic predominates greatly among the
Dutch, and to a considerable degree among the Germans.
The prevailing temperament in France is the Nervous, or,
perhaps, the Nervous-Bilious. The Sanguine seems to
prevail among the Swedes and Norwegians, and, combined
with the Nervous, among the Irish.
What is the temperament of genius ?
The Nervous and Bilious, or a mixture of them, are in a
102 " Long-continued observation has led us to ronsider it as a general
rule, that one inherent quality characterizes the various organs composing
an individual human body; in other words, that if the bones be dense and
firm, and the muscles compact and vivacious, the other organs of the body
partake of the excellent quality, and the brain, among the rest, is capable
of vigorous action. When the expression of the countenance is animated
and refined, an active and vivacious brain is seldom, if ever, wanting." —
PhrenologicalJournal, vol. viii, p. 595.— (We see the influence of tempera,
ment on the lower animals. The bones of the racer are much more com-
pact than those of the draught horse, the muscles are also firmer and
tougher, and the animal possesses that mingled vivacity and capability for
continued exertion, which exist in persons well endowed with the Bilious
and the Nervous temperaments. In sluggish animals, such as the cow, the
hog, &c., Lymphatic very decidedly predominates.)
particular manner the temperaments of genius. Great
genius, however, may accompany the Sanguine tempera-
ment. Such is the case with Professor Wilson. It is difl&-
cult to conceive a purely lymphatic person of distinguished
Give illustrations of some of the temperaments.
The temperament of Pope, Voltaire, Keats, Kirke White,
and Cowper, was evidently pure Nervous — that of Milton
probably a mixture of the Nervous and Bilious — that of
Shakspeare and Raphael, of the Nervous and Sanguine —
and that of Julius Csesar, Oliver Cromwell, and Wellington,
of the pure Bilious. Alcibiades and Achilles seem to have
been illustrations of the pure Sanguine, and Benjamin
Franklin of the Sanguine-Bilious. The temperament of
Gall was Bilious- Nervous, that of Spurzheim Nervous-San-
guine-Lymphatic. These facts we infer from what we
know of the individuals by their actions and writings, and
by their portraits, where these exist.
Have mental exertion and age any modifying influence
on temperament ?
They have. Great exercise of the brain has a tendency
to eradicate the Lymphatic to a considerable extent. Such
was the case with Dr. Spurzheim. By incessant intellectual
labour he rendered himself much less lymphatic than he
originally was, and never got very stout, although his natu-
ral tendency was towards embonpoint. His sisters, on the
other hand, who possessed brains very inferior to his, and
who never exerted them, became excessively corpulent and
indolent. In Spurzheim, the great size of brain, combined
with a considerable portion of the Nervous, and some degree
of the Sanguine temperament, kept him intellectually very
active, and contributed to mitigate the lymphatic influence.
Age, again, has a tendency to induce the latter. People
who showed little or none of it when young, often exhibit
it when they get towards middle or advanced life, becoming
then full-bodied and indolent, and indisposed to either cor-
poreal or mental exertion.i^^
Does not this doctrine of the temperaments throw great
obstacles in the way of predicating character?
It does? not ; for a knowledge of quality of brain is as
much one of the phrenological conditions, as that of quantity.
A true phrenologist always calculates the effect which tem-
perament produces, seeing that on this the quality of the
cerebral texture seems chiefly to depend. In estimating
the strength of two men, we do not judge absolutely by their
size : the one who is least in dimensions, may yet possess
the greatest energy in his muscular system. If, however,
the muscles of the large man are not only bulkier, but of
equal quality as respects firmness and stamina, he must
needs be the more athletic of the two. Other things being
equal, the larger the muscles or brain, the greater will be
the power possessed by them. A large lymphatic brain
will display more vigour than a small one, although less
than that of a brain acted on by more energetic tempera-
103 •' We have heard it remarked by an acute traveller, that the Lym-
phatic temperament, indicated by coarse fair hair, plump and inexpressive
countenance, and languid eyes, with the attendant dulness and coarseness of
mind,greatly predominates among the lower orders in the northern countries
of Europe ; while dark hair and dark eyes, or fine flaxen hair, and clear
vivacious blue eyes, indicative of the Bilious and Nervous temperaments,
are much more common among the higher classes in the same regions ; and
that the proportions of the Bilious and Nervous temperaments to the Lym-
phatic, increase as the degrees of latitude decrease." — PhrenologicalJotemaiy
vol. vii. p. 412.
What faculties first display themselves?
The propensities, with one exception — that of Amative-
ness, which is the organ that last manifests the faculty
belonging to it.
Do the Perceptive or the Reflective organs act earliest?
The perceptive : children soon begin to notice objects, but
a long time elapses before they can reason upon them, or
trace their relations.io*
Are the organs generally contiguous whose functions bear
some resemblance ?
They are. Thus Causality and Comparison, which have
a strong analogy in their functions, are contiguous. The
same is the case with Ideality and Wonder, with Time and
Tune, with Combativeness and Destructiveness, with Adhe-
siveness and Philoprogenitiveness, and so on. This curious
104 " The reflecting faculties, observes Dr, Caldwell, "are never power,
fully manifested at a very early period of life. The knowing or perceptive
ones alone are, at times, inordinately vigorous in infancy. Hence, none of
the precocious geniuses that appear excite astonishment by their reasoning
powers. They are distinguished in music, numbers, drawing, painting,
modelling, and language ; but not in any tiling that depends on depth of
reflection J such as general philosophy, political economy, or abstract meta-
physics. In these latter branches of science precocious geniuses rarely
attain eminence at any period of their lives. Nat<ire would seem to have so
exhausted her resources in giving unwarranted luxuriance in them to the
knowing organs of the brain, as to have but little left to bestow on the
reflecting ones wliich come to maturity at a later period. Hence, it has
passed almost into a proverb that 'early geniuses who are men among boys
are apt to be afterwards boys among men.' Infant Rosciuses are mere
mimics and verbalists, their organs of Imitativeness and Language being
inordinately developed; and they seldom "go beyond mimicry during their
lives. We recollect no instance of an infant Roscius becoming an adult
one."— Annals of Phrenology, vol. i. p. 61.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 168
collocation of parts bearing a functional resemblance, is a
strong presumptive evidence in confirmation of phrenology.
Are the faculties always affected in the same manner?
They are not. They may be affected painfully or the
reverse according to circumstances. If I see a generous
action performed, my Benevolence, supposing it to be
full, is agreeably excited, and gratification is the result :
an act of cruelty, on the other hand, affects it painfully,
iand produces a disagreeable feeling. Conscientiousness is
gratified by honesty, and shocked by knavery; Adhesive-
ness is delighted in the society of a beloved friend, and
pained by his absence or death. Acquisitiveness receives
gratification from wealth, and is hurt by its loss. Objects
of beauty please Ideality; squalid, filthy, disgusting objects
pain it. The faculties, therefore, may be affected in two
ways. Their agreeable affection constitutes pleasing; their
disagreeable, painful emotions of the mind.
7s the exercise of any of the faculties pernicious?
This depends upon whether the degree in which they are
exercised amounts to an abuse. All the faculties are in
themselves good, if legitimately employed. The Creator
endowed us with the whole of them that they might be ra-
tionally gratified; and any man who affirms that even a
single one ought to be utterly stiffled or blotted out, as it
were, from the human mind is, in reality, offering an insult
to the Divine Being by whom that mind was created. Some
well-meaning, but unenlightened persons, imagine that such
innocent occupations as dancing, music, mirth, and theatrical
representations are offensive in the eyes of God. Now
what is the tendency of this allegation, but to charge the
Almighty with creating a number of useless or improper
(faculties? We have organs of Tune and Time, which
inspire the love of music and dancing, and induce us to visit
concerts and balls. We have an organ of Wit whose func-
164 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
tion is to give rise to mirthfalness. We have one of Ideality,
which communicates poetic rapture, and experiences grati-
fication in the magnificent performances of a Siddons, a
Talma, or a Kean. If we do not allow the passion for these
amusements to go to excess : if we indulge it moderately,
avoiding abuse of the faculties from whence it springs, we are
not only not doing what is morally wrong, but we are doing
what is positively right, in so far as we thus obey a rational
and beneficial impulse implanted in our minds by the author
of nature, and wisely intended for our good. Dancing,
music, poetry, and theatrical representations of a moral
character, when had recourse to in the intervals of more
urgent and laborious pursuits, have an excellent effect on
the brain. They innocently and agreeably stimulate the
diflPerent organs, especially those of the Sentiments and
Intellect, and their tendency, instead of being pernicious, is
highly favourable to virtue. What would be thought of the
sanity of that man who proposed that the eyes should be
perpetually blindfolded, and the ears stuffed with cotton,
because we may misemploy the former in wilfully witnessing
scenes of cruelty, or the latter in listening to obscene songs
or profligate conversation. Those who proscribe the legiti-
mate gratification of any of the faculties are acting a part
What is the cause of mental precocity?
It has its origin in premature development or excitement
of the intellectual organs. The source of such prematurity,
however, is rather obscure, but it seems to be connected in
general with a high Nervous Temperament. Lymphatic
or Bilious children are seldom precocious. Precocity is
peculiarly common among the scrofulous, rickety, ^^^ and
105 An American physician, Dr. Brigham, has published a little work
entitled " Remarks on the influence of Mental Cultivation and Mental
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 165
consumptive. These states of constitution are accompanied
with an irritable state of frame, which extends its influence
to the brain, and thus causes a premature manifestation of
Why do precocious children generally turn out very ordin-
ary as adults ?
It is a law of nature, that when an organ is vehemently
exercised, before acquiring full consistency and strength, its
functions become impaired. A horse sent to the turf very
young has its constitution often ruined, and the same is the
case with youthful prize-fighters and recruits. The brain is
no exception to the general rule.
Ought the mind of a child who exhibits marks of early
genius, to be much exercised?
Quite the reverse. We ought to consider the brain of
such a child as in a state of unnatural excitement bordering
on disease; and if it be fond of thinking or studying much,
the habit ought rather to be checked than encouraged. If
we work the brain much, it is ten to one that it gets diseased,
and the child is either cut off early, or lives to be, for ever
after, a very common-place person, perhaps a blockhead.
Hydrocephalus, or water in the head, is sometimes produced
in children by over-exertion of the brain.
Does the same rule apply to dull children ?
Not so powerfully. The minds of these children ought to
be exercised, so as to give health to, and stimulate the brain;
they need the spur instead of the bridle. Even here, how-
ever, there is a limit which it is dangerous to transgress.
The brain of no child whatever ought to be much worked;
moderate exercise is all that should be attempted. Very
Excitement on Health," which throws a flood of light upon this important
subject. It has been reprinted, with many additional notes, by Messrs.
Reid & Co. Booksellers in Glasgow, and ought to be read by every parent
and teacher of youth.
166 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
great evns result from school education being too severe and
too early begun.
How happens it that dull children often prove very clever
as adults ?
From the fact, that in some individuals the intellectual
orgaus are slow of reaching maturity, either from late growth
or late excitement. Some minds are very late of being
evolved. Gessner the Swiss Poet was, at the age of ten
years, declared by his preceptors incapable of any attain-
ment; and Swift, Thomson, Sir Walter Scott, and Dr.
Johnson, were very dull lads. Massillon, Byron, Gibbon,
and Voltaire, exhibited in boyhood and youth no indications
of more than ordinary talent ; while Sir Isaac Newton,
according to his own account, ranked very low in the school
till the age of twelve, when his superior powers began to
develop themselves. Persons in whom the reflective organs
predominate over the perceptive, are more likely to be con-
sidered dull in youth, than when there is an opposite con-
figuration of brain; the former reflective organs, as already
mentioned, being longer of attaining maturity of action than
From what parent do children chiefly derive their qualities f
In colour and form, the father, if these are in him very
strong, transmits a greater share of his qualities, apparently
because he is frequently before the mother, and thus im-
presses her strongly with the idea of them; but in giving
temperament and shape of brain, the mother's influence
seems to be the greatest. Hence a clever woman and an
ordinary man, are more likely to have talented children
than the converse. Men of genius generally marry dull
women-^hence their children are often dull.ios Another
106 If both parents are talented, there is every chance of the children
being so. The union of Godwin and Mary Wolstoncroft, produced Mrs,
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 167
reason is, that such men frequently infringe the organic laws,
by overworking their brains, and not studying the rules of
health sufl&ciently: defective brains are in this way trans-
mitted to their children.io'^
Why are the first-born of parents who marry very young,
generally inferior in intellect and morality to those that come
Parents communicate their qualities of brain to offspring.
In young parents, the activity of the propensities is greater,
and that of the intellect and moral sentiments less than at
a later period. A child produced at a time when the cere-
bral system of its father and mother is in this immature
state, partakes of the defect, and retains it through life. ^^8
Those produced, when the intellect and moral feelings are
brought into more vigorous operation, naturally enjoy the
Shelley, the distinguished author of Frankenstein; and other examples
might be adduced.
Vice is propagable from parents to their children, in the same way as
virtue and talent. Henry II. of France and his Queen, Catherine de
Medicis, were cruel and atrocious bigots. The former, on the coronation of
his wife, burned many protestants alive, and regaled himself with the horrid
spectacle. Catherine, who succeeded him as Regent, was not less infamous
for her cruelty. From this abominable couple sprung three sons still more
wicked than their parents, — viz. Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III.;
the second named being the author of the horrid massacre of St. Bartholo-
mew's day, on which occasion 40,000 Protestants were butchered in cold
107 For much valuable information on the subject of the transmission of
hereditary qualities from parents to their children, the reader is referred to
Dr. .Caldwell's admirable little work entitled "Thoughts on Physical
Education," a reprint of which has lately appeared in Edinburgh under the
auspices of Mr. Combe and Mr. Robert Cox, the former of whom has
furnished it with a preface, and the latter with a variety of excellent notes..
See also Mr. Combe's " Constitution of Man."
108 I confess myself a participator in the vulgar belief that impressions
made upon the mother's mind during pregnancy may aftect the offspring.
There are many cases to prove this. Mr. Bennet relates a very striking
one in the "London Medical and Physical Journal." A woman gave birth
168 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
benefit of this improved condition of brain, and the proba-
bilities are, that they will surpass the eldest born both in
talents and in virtue.
What is the best plan for insuring a good brain to our
The first great point is obedience to the organic laws of
marriage, which command us to choose for partners only
such as have a good cerebral organization. The next is
ample nourishment in childhood, with considerable bodily,
and moderate mental exercise.
In which sex do the faculties soonest reach maturity f
In the female. Woman attains her full stature and pro-
portions earlier than man; and the same law prevails also
with regard to the manifestations of her mind.
Is mental maturity attained at the same age in all nations f
No. In the tropics this occurs several years earlier than
in the colder regions.
Has the size of brain any effect upon the voice ?
It has, especially if the organs of Firmness, Combative-
to a child with a large cluster of globular tumours growing from the tongue,
and preventing the closure of the mouth, in colour, shape, and size exactly
resembling our common grapes ; and with a red excrescence from the chest
as exactly resembling in figure and general appearance a turkey's wattles.
On being questioned, before the child was shown her, she answered that,
while pregnant, she had seen some grapes, longed intensely for them and
constantly thought of them, and once was attacked by a turkey cock.
James VI. of Scotland had a great abhorrence of a drawn sword, and was,
withal, timid and cowardly ; which difference of character from that of all
the hne of Stewart which preceded and followed him has been attributed,
not irrationally, to the circumstance of Rizzio having been butchered before
the eyes of Queen Mary then encem/e with the future monarch. According
to Esquirol, the children whose existence dated from the horrors of the first
French Revolution turned out to be weak, nervous, and irritable in mind,
extremely susceptible of impressions, and liable to be thrown, by the least
extraordinary excitement, into absolute insanity. The story of Jacob and
the rods, as related in the 30th chapter of Genesis, is a proof of the belief in
ancient time that parental impressions may affect the offspring.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 169
ness, and Destructiveness are large. Large-brained people
have generally a loud, energetic pronunciation — small-
brained the reverse.
Why are certain individuals much liked by some and
hated by others ?
Individuals with large organs of Benevolence, Self-Es-
teem, and Destructiveness, will be objects of love or aver-
sion, according to the dispositions of those they associate
with. If they come in contact with people who are also
largely endowed with the two latter organs, they will pro-
bably be disliked, from the almost necessary collision of
faculties which will ensue betwixt the parties. Meeting
with persons in whom the organs in question are small, or
only moderately developed, no such collision takes place;
and their Benevolence, having uninterrupted sway, comes
into operation, and attracts towards themselves the kindly
feelings of those persons.
Why are brave people generally affectionate f
This arises from the curious fact, that when Combativeness
is greatly developed, there is almost always a large organ of
Adhesiveness. Accordingly, brave men have ever been
remarked for the strength of their attachments. General
Wurmser had both organs large, and he displayed the cor-
responding faculties powerfully. In the skull of king Robert
Bruce, Adhesiveness is amply developed; and history repre-
sents him as an affectionate husband and friend.
Why are passionate people remarkable for their dislikes
and attachments f
Such persons have in general exciteable temperaments,
very active brains; and this activity applies to Destructive-
ness and Adhesiveness, in common with other organs. The
excitement of the first named will produce irascibility and
hatred, that of the latter affection and kindness.
Why does it sometimes happen that a servant who has
170 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
been under two mistresses is esteemed by one a person of ex-
cellent temper i and by the other quite the reverse ?
This arises undoubtedly from the different constitutions
of mind possessed by the two mistresses. If the servant is
destructive and the mistress the same, the hasty temper of
the former will probably often appear : if the mistress is of
a mild disposition, the organ of Destructiveness in the servant
will not be called into activity, and she will be regarded by
her employer as possessed of a very good temper. This
teaches us that, in selecting servants, care should be taken to
procure those whose dispositions will accord with our own.
By neglecting this obvious rule, quarrels are perpetually
occurring, and a great deal of domestic annoyance is the
result. It teaches, moreover, something still more important.
If a man, for instance, with large Destructiveness, Comba-
tiveness and Firmness, marries a woman similarly organized,
there is a great chance of unhappiness, unless the parties
have the most admirable prudence and self-command.
Common observation points out the consequences of such
Has Phrenology been ever usefully employed in the selec-
tion of servants?
It has, and with such success that some phrenologists will
not engage a servant without ascertaining his or her char-
acter by examination of the head. The practice is altogether
excellent, and should be more generally had recourse to.
A full development of Order, Individuality, and Conscien-
tiousness is absolutely essential to a good domestic. Where
children are to be taken care of, Philoprogenitiveness ought
to be large, otherwise little interest will be felt in them.
Veneration, which bestows deference to superiors, should
also be well developed, especially if the master or mistress
possesses much Self-Esteem. A servant with a small
brain and feeble character may suit an employer similarly
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 171
situated, but will not answer one whose brain is large and active.
To the latter he will seem inefficient or useless. The servant,
however, ought not to excel his master in intellect or force of
character. If such is the case, he will intuitively feel that
nature has made him superior to the master he serves. An
active temperament is in every case essential. Where the
lymphatic tendency prevails, smartness and vivacity will be
absent, and work felt to be toilsome and oppressive. Because
a servant is rejected by one master, on the score of ineffi-
ciency, it by no means follows that he may not make a very
fair one to another, with a different cerebral combination.ios^
If a woman with a large active brain, marries a small-
brained man, what is likely to ensue ?
She will rule her husband. As already mentioned, a
large brain acquires an ascendency over a small one.
Why, then, do weak women sometimes rule men superior to
themselves in intellect and force of character?
Such men will often give way in trifling matters to their
vnves for the sake of peace, but not in affairs of real impor-
tance. A sensible man will not run the risk of quarrelling
with a silly woman, when, by yielding in things of no great
moment, he can keep her quiet. Independently of this,
strong-minded men are often very much attached to their
109 " In one instance, I refused to hire a boy as a servant, because I found
his head to belong to the inferior class, although he was introduced by a
woman whose good conduct and discrimination I had long known, and who
gave him an excellent character. That individual was, at first, greatly
incensed at my refusing to engage the boy; but within a month she returned,
and said that she had been grossly imposed upon herself by a ^neighbour,
whose son the boy was ; that she had since learned that he was a thief, and
had been dismissed from his previous service for steahng. On another
occasion, I hired a female servant, because her head belonged to the superior
class, although her former mistress gave her a very indififerent character j
and the result was equally in favour of phrenology. She turned outan excel-
lent servant, and remained with me for several years, imtil she was respect-
ably married."— Co?«Je'* System, ith edition, vol. ii. p. 717.
172 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
wives, however much inferior to themselves; and are natur-
ally not indisposed to gratify their whimsicalities. When
a man, intellectually superior to his wife, is ruled and over-
awed by her, it will be found that he is her inferior in the
energy of the propensities. These, when strong and active,
give force to the character, and a natural predominance to
the individual over others more highly gifted with intellect,
but with the propensities feebler. Such, sometimes, is the
secret of female sway over intellectually superior minds.
Why is parental generally stronger than filial love?
Because in the first case both Adhesiveness and Philo-
progenitiveness come into operation, whereas in the second
it is Adhesiveness alone that acts.
What does eccentricity arise from?
From a want of due balance in the faculties. If one organ
or more is large in proportion to the others, particularly
where the intellect is weak, it will produce that irregularity
of character to which the term eccentric is applied. Eccen-
tricity frequently degenerates into madness.
From what does a great flow of animal spirits proceed f
From unusual activity of brain, accompanied often with
deficient prudence and reflection, and a large development
of Hope, Ideality, and Wit. Such cerebral activity is con-
stitutional, and generally accompanied with a high sanguine-
When an organ is much exercised, is pain ever felt in
the site of it?
Very often. Hard-thinking produces a sense of fulness
or pain in the forehead, the seat of the intellectual organs.
In excitement of Amativeness, there is frequently a sense of
heat at the nape of the neck. When there exists a strong
desire to travel,!!^ pain is sometimes felt in the region of
110 " A yonng lady," says Dr. Gall, "had always a great desire to travel.
She eloped from her father's house with an ofiBcer. Grief and remorse un-
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 173
Locality; and, in cases of spectral illusions, over the per-
What is the cause of spectral illusions?
These phenomena depend on a morbidly excited state of
some of the perceptive organs, such as Form, Size, and Colour;
whence images are presented to the mind without the co-
operation of the external senses. If the organ of Form, for
instance, becomes as strongly stimulated by an internal cause
as it would be by an object presented to it by the vision, some
image will be formed, and the person will believe that he
sees what in reality has no existence. Morbid affections of
the nerves of sight seem to have the same influence in pro-
ducing spectral illusions.
Is the feeling of hunger experienced^ strictly speaking, in
the stomach f
No. The term "craving of the stomach," so often used
to express hunger, is not in reality correct. The brain is the
craver, and is excited to a craving state only by emptiness
of the stomach, unless the organ of Alimentiveness be so
large, or so stimulated by some internal morbid action, as to
need no such excitement; or unless disease be present in
the stomach, so as to transmit to the brain the sensation
which, during health, is transmitted during inanition alone.
dermined her health. I attended her, and she made me remark two large
prominences which, she said, the pain she had endured had caused to grow
on her forehead. These excrescences, which appeared to her the conse-
quences of divine wrath, were in fact the organs of Locality, to which she had
never paid any attention." To this 1 may add, that a lady of my acquain-
tance, in whom the organ of Philoprogenitiveness is very largely developed
even for a woman, and whose love of children is extreme, informs me that
when distressed or anxious about her family she experiences pain at the
back of the head, just over the seat of the organ. Some deny the possibility
of one part of a healthy brain being more gorged with blood than another.
The above facts sufficiently demonstrate that such maybe the case j nor can
it be doubted that in a fit of violent rage, the portion of the cerebral mass
which manifests Destructiveness is in a much more turgescent state than
that appropriated to Benevolence.
174 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
People are sometimes affiictedwiih imaginary voices speak-
ing to them : can you account for this?
It may be explained in the same way as apparitions.
There are unquestionably certain parts of the brain which
take cognizance of sounds : we call the nerve of the ear the
organ of hearing, but strictly speaking it is not such : it is
merely the medium for conveying sounds to the brain, where
the true organ resides. Now, suppose that the portion of the
brain appropriated to this sense is stimulated by some internal
cause, in the same way as it is by real sounds conveyed to
it by the nerve, the person will have the idea that he hears,
and that often as distinctly as if subjected to the stimulus of
actual noise. Fanatics and deranged people sometimes
imagine they hear angels, and even the Deity, speaking to
them; and persons perfectly deaf have at times sensations as
of voices addressing them, just as the blind are occasionally
haunted by spectral illusions. All these phenomena are
explicable upon the principles just mentioned.^
What are dreams?
Dreams are merely spectral illusions — with this difference,
that, in the former, only certain of the organs are vivified by
the internal stimulus, while the rest are asleep; whereas, in
the latter, all are in the usual waking state. When I see
a ship sailing, in a dream, the organs of Form, Colouring,
&c. are stimulated by some internal cause, just as they are
in spectral illusions.
Ill Nothing is more common than spontaneous stimulation of the organ of
Tune. We are then often haunted with what Matthews calls the ghost of
a tune, which intrudes itself on all occasions, and sometimes under circum-
stances peculiarly ludicrous. I have heard of a worthy clergyman, who,
while in the pulpit one Sunday, felt an excessive desire to sing Maggie
Lauder ; on going home the tendency to indulge in this profane freak became
irresistible, and without more ado he went into his garden and sung the
song with great glee. This done, the inclination vanished : his organ of
Time received the gratification for which it was craving, and the ghost
of Maggie Lauder took to flight.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 175
How does it happen that people of weak intellect some-
times display considerable powers of mind during an attack
of fever or inflammation of the brain?
It is to be accounted for from the organs of the brain
bein^ stimulated by the disease; whence the faculties con-
nected with these organs display unusual force, and an
intellectual energy is exhibited of which, at other times, the
person gives no indications. As soon, however, as the dis-
ease is removed, the stimulus communicated by it to the
organs ceases, and the customary state of imbecility returns.
Even idiots sometimes become rational during fever.
Explain why forgotten events are sometimes brought back
to the mind in dreams.
This is explicable on the same principle. During the
dream, certain portions of the brain which bear a relation
to the event are stimulated, and a resuscitation of it
is the consequence. A man, for instance, hides or mislays
money, and forgets where; but the brain being excited, the
circumstance is vividly recalled; and if he is ignorant, as
generally happens, of the cause of this phenomenon, he
straightway infers that something supernatural has occurred,
and that he has been favoured with intelligence by spiritual
Are all the cerebral organs liable to stimulation in madness,
dreaming, drunkenness, Sfc.f
So far as we know, they all are; and there is no obvious
reason why any of them should be exempted from this law.
Give a few instances of the stimulation of particular
People who never displayed any talent for poetry,
music, calculation, or eloquence, have exhibited these
qualities in considerable perfection during an attack of in-
sanity, or even in dreams : the most chaste have become
wanton in their conduct, and indecent in their language;
176 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
the most sedate witty; the most prosaic full of imagination.
Even persons who never before displayed any thing like
logical power, have reasoned profoundly, constituting in-
stances of what Pinel calls " Folic Raisonnante," or Reason-
ing Insanity. Such changes undoubtedly arise from the
particular stimulus which has been communicated to the
organs of the faculties concerned.
May a man he a ready, eloquent, and impressive speaker.,
and yet possess no great intellect?
Nothing is more common. It is generally but fallaciously
imagined that eloquence is altogether an intellectual opera-
tion; and hence those who excel in it are looked upon as
necessarily possessing very superior talents. Much of the
power of eloquence, however, is derived from the appeals
made by it to the propensities and sentiments. A person
who addresses the passions of a multitude, and carries his
audience along with him, is truly eloquent; and yet in accom-
plishing this oratorical feat, scarcely a single appeal may
be made to the intellect of his hearers. The harangues of
popular demagogues are almost all of this sort. They address
the Self-Esteem, the Combativeness, and the Love of Appro-
bation of the crowd, and the effect produced is often won-
derful. The late Henry Hunt owed the power which he
wielded of swaying a mob, to his strong propensities, finding
a ready echo in those of his audience. In a war of the
lower propensities he was a formidable gladiator; and so will
any man be who is gifted with powerful passions, and a large
J organ of Language. The eloquence which appeals to the
j understanding alone, is indeed a very different and very
: superior accomplishment; but for common purposes it is little
available, in so far as the average intellects of men are not
sufficiently enlightened to relish it. This is the reason why
some men of great talent are little appreciated as speakers
: by the multitude, while others, who appeal solely to the feel-
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 177
ings of an audience, and whose intellectual calibre is exceed-
ingly small, are looked upon as persons of distinguished
How is it that people of talent have sometimes small, and
dull people large heads ?
To bestow talent, the intellectual organs only are neces-
sary. A person may have these well developed, and yet the
organs of the propensities and inferior sentiments may be
so small, as to cause the head to be below the average
size. Again, if the former class be small, and the latter very
large, the head may be one of ample dimensions, and yet
its owner be a most ordinary mortal. Where organs not re •
markably developed accompany strong faculties, the mental
cultivation will be found to have been ^reat, and the quality
of brain to be very superior. "'^'■'
In a person of talent, would you expect a large intellectual
I would, provided his talent was of a comprehensive kind;
but it is quite possible to possess a genius for a particular
subject, and yet have a poor general development of the
intellectual organs. For instance, he may have great talent
in calculation, in music, or in scholarship, by virtue of large
organs of Number, Tune, or Language. People are often
called clever, from possessing, in great perfection, one par-
ticular faculty; and, having what phrenologists would call a
poor development of brain, they are brought forward as
illustrations of the fallacy of the science. George III. was
called by some people a clever man, because he possessed
great power of recollecting individuals whom he had seen.
There was once a man who could repeat, from memory,
the whole of the New Testament. Many hearing of such
a prodigy, would infer that he must have been possessed
of vast genius; yet he was little better than an idiot.
Has a tall man a larger brain than one of moderate statwe f
178 MISCELLANEOtrS QUESTIONS.
A sufficient number of observations appears still awanting"
to determine this point satisfactorily; but it seems probable,
that the brain of a tall, broad, powerful man, is, generally
speaking, larger than that of a short man of an opposite make.
The heads, at all events, of these men are commonly larger;
but this may partly arise from the skull and integuments being
generally very thick in athletic subjects. Large men, however,
are usually inferior in intellect and energy of character to the
middle-sized, and are far less likely to possess the same
amount of genius with the same size of brain — the nervous
energy being wasted over their unwieldy trunks in the
processes of digestion, assimilation, secretion, &c.i ^^ « Large
men," as Richerand justly remarks, "are seldom great men.'^
Is great muscular exercise favourable to the vigorous
action of the brain?
Quite the reverse. A hard-working man, after finishing
his day's labour, will be apt to fall asleep if he attempts to
read. In him, the nervous energy is chiefly expended on
the muscles, and too small a portion of it is sent to the
; intellectual Organs, which, not being stimulated sufficiently,
I are in a state unfavourable to the process of thinking. In a
country church, nothing is more common than to find half
the congregation asleep during sermon; and the reason is
1 12 Though large men seem to have, generally speaking, larger brains than
the middle-sized, the exceptions to this rule are numerous. Gall, Byron,
Cuvier, and Napoleon, had very large heads, and none of them exceeded
the ordinary size ; the latter two, indeed, were rather below it. The same
remark applies to Godwin, whose head was of great size. With regard to
the fact of large bodies being unfavourable to mental activity and power,
Spurzheim remarks, that " A large body will require the greater part of
the brain and nervous system to be employed in its functions, and there
will then remain a small portion for the manifestations of the superior
faculties." I may here observe, that when the body is growing rapidly, the
mind becomes weak, on account of the drafts made upon the brain, to effect
the growth— in other words, to supply the nervous energy necessary for
the proper performance of the digestive and assimilative functions.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 179
obvious. Country people, working harder than citizens in
general, have less vivacious brains. An intellectual effort
overcomes them sooner, and they fall asleep, where the
others would continue awake without difficulty.
In certain cases of insanity, there is said to be no apparent
disease of the brain: how ns this reconcileable with phren-
Although there is no apparent, there must be real disease.
Facts prove that disease may exist without its being possible
to ascertain it by dissection. Such is often the case in tetanus,
tic doloureux, and paralysis, where we can generally detect
no change whatever in the nerves, the seat of those diseases.
In like manner, digestion, or the biliary secretion, may be
disordered, without the concomitance of any appreciable
change in the stomach or liver ; and so may it be with
the brain in what are called mental diseases. The cases
of insanity, however, in which this viscus is seemingly free
from disease, must be exceedingly few in number, if any
such there be at all. One of the most distinguished of
modern physiologists, Mr. Lawrence, states that he has ex-
amined the heads of many insane persons after death, and
has hardly seen a single brain in which there were not
obvious marks of disease. Dr. Wright of the Bethlehem
Lunatic Asylum says, that in one hundred cases of insane
individuals, whose heads he had examined, all exhibited
signs of disease, more or less. A French writer, who has
examined a still greater number, arrives at the same con-
clusion. In short, it is more than probable, that in every
case, a skilful person, who is accustomed to examine the
brains of lunatics, will detect signs of disease. They may
be so slight as to escape the notice of a common observer,
but that they will be manifest to the minute, experienced,
and talented pathologist, there is every reason to be-
Hoio happens it that in extensive dropsy of the brain, the
intellectual powers are not always destroyed?
When hydrocephalus (or water in the head) occurs before
the process of cranial ossification is perfected, or even at a
later period, the bones yield to the action of the internal fluid,
and the brain is thus, in a great measure, freed from a pressure
which would otherwise speedily prove fatal. The size which
the head then attains is often enormous. It is customary to
Illustration of Hydrocephalus.
say that in some such cases the intellect is not weakened, but
this is a mistake. Destroyed it may not be, but impaired it
always is, more or less. A hydrocephalic brain may exhibit
tolerable aptitude where a very moderate demand is made
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 181
upon its energies; but engage it in any task which requires
considerable exertion, and its weakness and inefficiency will
be abundantly evident.
What do you think of the objection often made to phreno-
logy, that the organs cannot be shown in a detached state,
but only homogeneously connected f^^^
Every sensible person must think it a very absurd one.
If the purpose of Nature had been to settle the doubts of a
few incredulous individuals, instead of constructing the brain
after the fashion best adapted for the performance of its
functions, then, doubtless, she would have marked the
limits of every organ with mathematical nicety and distinct-
ness; but it has not pleased her to do this — at least so far
as our powers of observation at present enable us to discover;
and, accordingly, we must just take things as we find them
— satisfied, that the animal economy exhibits no instance of
one organ performing more than one function, and that in
assigning different functions to different parts of the brain,
Nature is only following one of her own invariable laws.
Is not the tongue, though it possesses taste, sensation, and
jnotion, three different functions, a single organ ?
There are certainly three functions combined in the tojjgue.
113 Let such objectors point out (as was suggested in a humorous paper
in the Phrenological Journal) where the chin ends and the cheeks begin,
and then we shall allow their arguments to possess some force. No human
being can point out the line of demarcation which separates those parts
of the face, yet, I presume, every man of sound mind admits the exis-
tence of chins, and the possibility of telling whether they are large or small.
The organs of the brain are not a whit more intimately blended together,
than is the chin, or even the nose, with the cheeks. In looking at a moun-
tain, no person can tell the precise point where it commences, and the plain
terminates; still, common sense informs us, that there is a mountain before
our eyes. In looking at the rainbow, or through a prism, we see a variety
of differently coloured rays, yet who can define the limits of each? ;, Though
perfectly distinct, they are blended together in a way that defies the point-
ing out of their limits. So it is with the organs of the brain.
182 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
it must be considered that each of these is effected by means
of a distinct organ or nerve. We have a nerve for taste,
another for sensation, and a third for motion — so that,
strictly speaking, the tongue is not a single organ, but
combines in itself several, by means of which its varied
functions are performed. Its different nerves can perform
only their own functions and no other; thus, in the gus-
tatory nerve resides the sense of taste alone, and not that
of feeling — just as, in the brain, the organ of Locality gives
us the perception of places, and not that of music or colour.
The fact, therefore, that one organ can perform only one
function holds as true in the tongue as in the brain; and
throughout the whole animal economy it is precisely the
What is crime?
The abuse of certain of the propensities: thus, theft is
the abuse of Acquisitiveness, and murder of Destructive-
ness. Crime, however, presupposes such a decree of sanity
as to make us responsible agents, for no possible abuse of
the propensities can be looked upon as criminal in a madman
or an idiot.
What is the origin of motives?
Motives are desires or inclinations produced by the activity
of the faculties; and this activity is owing to the excitement
of the cerebral organs, either spontaneous, or the effect of
114 Till the discovery of Sir Charles Bell, no person could anatomically
demonstrate the existence of distinct nerves for motion and sensation.
Spurzheim, judging from analogy, inferred, that there must be separate
nerves for each of these functions, and urged anatomists to prosecute the
subject, and endeavour to find them out. Sir Charles Bell was the lucky
discoverer. He ascertained that the one set of nerves arises from the anterior,
and the other from the posterior part of the spinal marrow, that they unite
almost immediately, and are so intimately blended, that they cannot be
distinguished or disentangled. They are, in fact, as completely incorporated,
to all appearance, as the different organs of the brain, and constitute a tex-
ture seemingly even more homogeneous than the cerebral mass.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 183
external circumstances, or, what is most frequent, arising-
Would every man have acted as the murderer Hare did^
if placed in the same circumstances?
No. Few men could possibly have done so, and none
unless they had possessed a cerebral organization similar to
Hare's. No longing for money, no privation, however great,
could have made thieves or murderers of such men as Fenelon
and Howard. j
WJiat is the cause of certain organs being too large or too
This very often arises from infringement of the organic
laws in marriage. If a man with great Combativeness and
Destructiveness, marries a woman similarly endowed, their
children will probably possess the preponderating organs
still larger and more active than the parents. The activity
of the propensities is often increased by drinking, and the
contamination of bad society, for the same reason that the
vigour of the reflecting faculties is augmented by reading,
and other salutary intellectual exercises.
May deficiency in the size of certain organs he also occa-
sioned by infringement of the organic laws ?
Undoubtedly. A man and woman very deficient in Con-
scientiousness, will be apt to produce dishonest children.
If both parents have a poor intellectual development, their
offspring almost always inherit the same — in most cases
to a worse degree.
Have the heads of criminals any peculiarity of formation?
They have, in so far that not an instance can be pointed out,
of a criminal, or notoriously worthless character, having such
a moral and intellectual development as Melancthon or Sully.
In the heads of criminals, there is generally a great pre-
dominance of the organs of the propensities over those of
the moral sentiments — a large mass of brain in the posterior
and basilar regions, and a comparatively small portion in
the frontal and coronal regions. Some malefactors, how-
ever, are drawn into crime more by unfavourable circum-
stances than by natural depravity ; while other men, strongly
disposed to crime, but rather fortunately situated in worldly
matters, refrain, through dread of the consequences, from
committing it. People with a good moral development,
occasionally commit crimes from a diseased action of
the brain. Such persons are virtually deranged, although
this circumstance is not alwaj'^s taken into consideration.
What character results from a pretty equal development
of the propensities, sentiments ^ and intellect?
It will be good, bad, or indifferent, according to the situa-
tion in which the individual is placed. If in favourg^ble
circumstances, well educated, and under the influence of
good example, he may turn out a very fair member of society;
if exposed to the contaminating influence of vice, he will be
apt to run into it, and become a rogue. Sheridan was a
man of this stamp. So long as he had plenty of money he
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 185
maintained a fair character for respectability; but when his
circumstances decayed, he sunk into disreputable and vicious
courses, and died in poverty and contempt. Many with such
a configuration of head have perished on the scaffold, owing
to their being unfavourably situated for the manifestion of
their moral sentiments, and but too favourably for the indul-
gence of the propensities. This remark applies to Max-
well who was executed at Dumfries for theft. In him, also, a
pretty uniform balance of the three sets of faculties
From what do such differences proceed ?
From the particular faculties which are most exercised
taking the lead. In virtuous society, the higher feelings,
such as Benevolence, Veneration, and Conscientiousness,
are cherished, and the lower ones, as Destructiveness, Com-
bativeness, and Amativeness, repressed; whence the former
(in a case where both are equally strong by nature) pre-
dominate. Reverse the case, and the predominance is
given to the latter. No good example could ever have
made a virtuous character of such a man as Bellingham,
armed, as he was, with an enormous supremacy of the
lower faculties; nor could any conceivable familiarity with
scenes of vice have made a villain of Fenelon or Howard.
Such a doctrine, some people may say, makes man a mere
machine. With this the disciples of Gall have nothing to
do. They simply reveal nature as they find it. Facts
demonstrate that a certain physical organization is invariably
accompanied with a particular mental constitution. It is
the will of the Divine Being that such a correspondence
should exist, and phrenologists are but the humble interpre-
ters of His laws as they affect the brain. Let those whose
cerebral system is happily constituted, thank the Almighty
Power, from whom they have their being, that He has so
beneficently endowed them; but let them deal gently with
186 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
those whom it has been His pleasure to form after a less
Is not one faculty modified by the influence of another ?
This is true as respects the result of the faculty, but not
as respects the force of the faculty itself. For instance, a
man offends me, and my excited Destructiveness prompts
me to knock him down; but I am restrained by Cautiousness
from so doing. The desire to strike is here nowise lessened;
in other words, the activity of Destructiveness is not abated:
the result merely to which it would otherwise lead is modi-
Is the activity of one organ ever increased by that of
Undoubtedly. If we look at a beautiful child, we ex-
perience at once kindly feelings towards him, from Philo-
progenitiveness and Ideality calling our Benevolence into
active operation. If Ideality is offended by a loathsome
reptile, Destructiveness is excited, and we are disposed . to
trample it under foot, however innoxious the creature may
be. Conscientiousness, offended by false suspicions against
one's self, excites Destructiveness. Dr. Combe suggests,
that it is from the contiguity of the organs of Adhesiveness,
Combativeness, and Destructiveness, that domestic dissen-
sions are the most bitter and irreconcileable of any.ii^ The
latter organ is violently excited by drinking, which has led
115 "A curious example of the effect of Benevoleuce in rousing Des-
tructiveness, is furnished by the history of Montbar, a Frenchman, who
was.^so furiously exasperated by reading, in early life, accounts of the
cruelties of the Spaniards in America, that he joined the Bucaneers, a body
of pirates long the scourge of navigators in the West Indies. So much,
and so frequently did this man gall the Spaniards, during the whole of his
life, that he acquired from them the name of ' the Exterminator.' Of
course, the independent energy of his Destructiveness itself must have heen
verylgreat."— 5ee an ad7nirable paper by Mr. Robert Cox, in the Phrenological
Journal, vol. ix. p, 402.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 187
some to conjecture, that this is owing to its being in the
immediate neighbourhood of Alimentiveness, the organ
which is peculiarly excited by intoxication. This doctrine,
however, of one organ being stimulated from the contiguity
of another, in an excited state, though highly plausible, is
open to serious objections. If Alimentiveness, for instance,
excite Destructiveness, why does not Destructiveness excite
Alimentiveness, and thus render a man desirous to eat
when in a passion ?
What should be the main purposes of education ?
To cultivate and direct the moral and intellectual faculties,
by means of exercise, instruction, and example, and to re-
press, as much as possible, the undue activity of the lower
feelings. In most people, the three classes of faculties are
nearly on a par; and upon education and example does it
greatly depend which shall take the lead in life.
How is Phrenology useful in education, seeing that a
person's talents and dispositions may be ascertained without
The greater our knowledge of the mental faculties, the
more perfectly are we made acquainted with the manner in
which they ought to be cultivated and applied. Phrenology
gives us this knowledge in a way superior to any other source
of information, and, therefore, must be eminently useful in
the education of youth. Independently of this, talents and
dispositions are very far from being so easily found out as is
sometimes imagined; and whatever tends to facilitate their
discovery, must be looked upon as a matter of high import-
ance. Both these purposes being served by Phrenology, its
uses in education are sufficiently obvious.
Has the size of the lungs any influence on the brain's
Doubtless it has. When the lungs are large, the blood
is more highly vivified, the circulation stronger, and the
188 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
brain nourished more completely, than when these organs
are small. Byron was a middle-sized man, but his lungs
were gigantic in their proportions; which may, perhaps,
account in some degree for his astonishing cerebral activity.
At the same time, it is not to be inferred, that because a
man's respiratory organs are large, his brain will necessarily
be an active one. All I mean to say is, that — other things
being equal — a large-lunged man will display greater vigour
and activity of mind than one in whom the lungs are small.
Have all kinds of food the same influence on the energy
of the brain f
No. Animal food stimulates the cerebral structure, and
contributes to its activity, much more than vegetable. If a
person is fed too much on vegetable diet, the mental powers
become enfeebled. In work-houses, where the inmates
have poor diet, and that often not in sufficient quantity,
there may be remarked a general v/aut of vigour in the
mind. Ill-fed children are far less likely to possess power-
ful intellects than those who are properly nourished. Man
partaking of the qualities of a carnivorous and graminivorous
animal, it was not the intention of nature that he should be
restricted to a merely vegetable diet. From such a diet
the brain does not receive sufficient stimulus, and is apt to
fall into a torpid state. A considerable allowance of animal
food is necessary, especially in temperate and cold climates,
to excite the cerebral structure properly, and keep it in
healthy and vigorous action. Still there is a limit which
must not be transgressed. An undue quantity of such food
over-stimulates the brain, particularly in the region of the
propensities, and gives rise to improper action of these
organs. The effect of animal diet taken in large quantities,
is well exhibited in the ferocity with which dogs who are
fed much upon it, are soon inspired.
Do phrenologists assign any organ for memory ?
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 189
They do not. Memory is an attribute of all the intel-
lectual faculties, and not a primitive mental power. If it
were, a person whose memory was good for one thing,
should possess it in equal perfection for all; but this is not
the case. We meet with people who have a great memory
for words, and an indifferent one for events; who recollect
localities and forms accurately, but have little power of
remembering music. This proves, that memory is not a
separate faculty, and cannot have a special organ. A per-
son with a good development of Language, has a memory
for words ; a second, with large Number, for numbers ; a
third, with large Tune, for music; and so on. Thus, memory
is connected with all the intellectual faculties, and is merely
one of the modes of their action.
What opinion would you form of a person who has a
bad memory f
Either that his intellect, wholly or in part, has never been
cultivated, or that it is naturally very common-place.
Memory being the manifestation of vigorous faculties, it
follows, that when it is bad, these faculties also must be
deficient in energy, either from natural feebleness or want
of exercise. No maxim is more false, than that " great wits
have short memories." The memory of every man of talent
is, by nature, a good one, in matters having relation to his
talent. If he allows his faculties to rust, by not employing
them, he has only himself to blame for his defective memory.
Why does memory so strikingly fail in old age f
Because the faculties, of which it is a mode of action,
Are not Perception, Attention, and Conceptio?i, primitive
mental powers 9
The metaphj'^sicians say so, but Phrenology denies the
assertion. According to our doctrine, they are merely differ-
ent modes of action of the knowing and reflecting faculties.
190 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
Perception is the lowest degree. If I hear a violin played
in the street, my organ of Tune is stimulated, and I per-
ceive the music. Attention is perception with an eflfort.
If my Tune is in such a state of vigorous excitement as to
enable me to compose or conceive music, the process of
Conception then takes place, and the organ is in the highest
state of activity. Perception, Attention, and Conception,
therefore, are, like Memory, connected with all the intellec-
tual faculties. They are simply particular states of activity
of those faculties.
What is the cause of enthusiasm?
It may arise from various sources. Thus, when Tune is
very large and active, the individual is enthusiastic about
music; when Veneration and Wonder predominate, he is
an enthusiast in religion; with Combativeness and Destruc-
tiveness greatly developed, he may be an enthusiastic
soldier or prize-fighter. Ideality gives poetical enthusiasm,
and also vivifies that arising from the other faculties. Large
Hope, with small Cautiousness and Causality, produce the
scheming enthusiast. And so on. In all, an active tem-
perament is generally found.
Give a phrenological explanation of grief.
The faculties are so constituted with relation to external
objects and occurrences, as to be affected agreeably by some
of them, and the reverse by others. Acquisitiveness, for ex-
ample, is gratified by pecuniary gain, and annoyed by loss :
Adhesiveness delights in the society of a friend, and suffers
pain at his death. Grief, then, is simply the painful affec-
tion of these or o-ther faculties; and, while the excitement
continues, no reasoning or consolation is able to root out
the painful sensation from the mind. Grief is to Adhesive-
ness, or whatever organ is painfully affected, exactly what
toothach is to the nerves of the teeth : when the excitement
of these nerves subsides, so does the pain; and in like
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 191
manner, when the irritated organs in the brain return to
their habitual condition, the sorrow gives way to calmness
What is envy ?
It is the result of Destructiveness and oflfended Self-Es-
teem acting in combination, and producing hatred in conse-
quence of another's success.
What is selfishness f
The quality of mind resulting from great Acquisitiveness
and Self-Esteem, with deficient Benevolence.
What does common sense depend upon ?
Upon a harmonious arrangement of the Propensities,
Sentiments, and Intellect — where all are so equally balanced
as not to interfere with or run counter to one another.
General Washington was an admirable instance of this
beautiful adaptation. Strictly speaking, he had no very
shining qualities, and little of what might be called genius.
As a general, he was nothing to Hannibal, Napoleon, or
Frederic of Prussia; as a philosopher, he could not be
named with Franklin, and as a legislator he has been often
surpassed. Whence, then, arose his greatness ? The secret
lay in his admirable common sense : his judgment, from the
manner in which his faculties were combined, was surprisingly
sound; his moral sentiments were elevated and noble; and
his propensities were finely kept in subordination. This com-
bination rendered him a truly great man, and as such he has
been universally recognized by the world. Common sense
is a rare quality, and many persons are said to possess it
who have no claim whatever to such a distinction.
What does indolence arise from ?
From inactivity of brain, either natural to the person, and
in constant or frequent existence; or accidental, the result of
indigestion, bad health, or some other temporary cause.
What is the origin of insipidity of character?
192 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
It is connected with an inert brain and small Destructive-
ness, and is most apt to accompany the lymphatic tempera-
How do you explain the phenomena of laughter and
weeping? ' ^
It is not easy to determine why certain mental states give
rise to these and other bodily affections. The following
are my views, and, after all, they do not throw much light
on the subject: — When certain parts of the body are
affected in certain modes, other parts are simultaneously
affected, in virtue of a mysterious law of the animal consti-
tution, called the law of sympathy. When an irritating sub-
stance is thrown into the eyes, or drawn up into the nostrils,
the diaphragm and pectoral muscles act violently, and pro-
duce sneezing. When the lungs are irritated by mucus or
ather foreign agents introduced into them, a similar result
follows, and we cough. When the organ of Destructive-
ness is roused, the facial muscles are affected in such a
manner as to give the countenance the natural language of
rage. A man who suffers acute pain, suddenly inflicted,
screams or howls. Terror makes the knees smite each
other. In the same way, it appears, that laughter is
the natural language of highly pleasurable affections of the
cerebral organs. Tickle a child, and he laughs immoderately.
Give him a piece of money; praise him; play a trick before
him; please him in any way, and the result is laughter.
Even Destructiveness has its sardonic laugh. On the other
hand, weeping generally proceeds from disagreeable affec-
tions of the organs. Beat, scold, or thwart a child, and he
cries bitterly. The loss of friends is a standard source of
weeping. Adults are less easily moved to tears than chil-
dren; the cause of which seems to be, that they are more
able to regulate the action of their faculties. There is
another source of tears, in moods called pathetic^ which are
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 193
rather agreeable than the reverse. We weep on reading an
affecting story, such as " Julia de Roubigne," and at behold-
ing a pathetic play such as " Romeo and Juliet," and the
feeling is, upon the whole, a pleasurable and not a painful
What is the phrenological theory of jealousy f
This state of mind is a combination of selfishness with
suspicion; that is to say, it proceeds from Self-Esteem,
Secretiveness, and Cautiousness, in combination with Ac-
quisitiveness, or some other faculty desiring enjoyment.
What does hypocrisy result from?
From Secretiveness in excess, with deficient Conscien-
tiousness. To persist in a course of hypocrisy, a great deal
of Firmness is requisite.
From what does credulity proceed ?
It arises, generally, from too much Veneration, Wonder,
or Hope, but its direction varies according as one or other
of these organs is large. Veneration renders people credu-
lous with respect to what is affirmed by those whom the}''
revere, Hope with respect to the occurrence of wished-for
events, and Wonder with respect to whatever is marvellous
or mysterious. Very large Self-Esteem, it may be farther
observed, disposes a flattered person to credulity, by giving
him the idea that he really merits the adulation bestowed.
Credulity is, in a great measure, counteracted by a powerful
and well-instructed understanding.
What is the cause of incredulity f
A deficiency of the organs which dispose to credulity, is
one cause. It may, however, arise, in many cases, from
ignorance. Thus, an illiterate clown laughs in your face, if
you tell him that the earth is shaped like an orange, and
moves round the sun; or that the stars which we see
twinkling in the firmament, are, each of them, a great deal
larger than the earth.
I94< MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
Some people are exceedingly nice, dainty, and finical, in
all they say or do: What is the cause of this f
It probably arises from a great devolopment of Individu-
ality and Order, particularly where the organs of the
Heflective Faculties are moderate, and the person is not
familiar with science and the more arduous pursuits of human
From what do impudence and forwardness proceed ?
An individual in whom Combativeness and Self-Esteem
are large, and Secretiveness, Cautiousness, Love of Appro-
bation, Benevolence, and Conscientiousness moderate, will
certainly be forward and impudent. Knowledge of the
world, by teaching the insignificance of self, tends to allay
What is the cause of frivolity f
Frivolity results from a small and very active brain. A
large-brained person may be dull, but he can hardly be
What is the cause of presence of mind f
Its chief elements are Combativeness, Firmness, Secre-
tiveness, Self-Esteem, Hope, and probably Individuality.
The first two give courage and resolution to meet the unex-
pected contingency; the third enables the person to conceal
his feelings of alarm or astonishment, if he has any; the fourth
and fifth inspire him with confidence, and the last commu-
nicates quickness of observation, which will make him notice
every thing at a glance, and thus give him an opportunity
of promptly encountering whatever may occur.
Why are religious people of excellent moral character
sometimes seized with the distressful idea of their extreme
unworthiness in the sight of God?
This arises from great Veneration, and small Hope and
Self-Esteem. If to such a combination there is added a
large development of Conscientiousness, the person will be
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 195
apt to accuse himself of heinous offences against the Deity,
and be haunted with the idea of eternal punishment. Fana-
ticism and every form of religious enthusiasm and insanity
are to be traced, without difficulty, to the immoderate or
ill-regulated action of some of the organs of the brain.
Some people acquire knowledge readily, and as readily
forget it; in others the reverse happens : How do you explain
It is supposed that they are occasioned by difference of
quality of the brain, an active temperament giving quickness
of memory, and an inactive one rendering it, cceteris paribus,
slow but retentive. The causes, however, of these and some
other differences of memory are still under investigation.
Why are wonierCs prejudices stronger than men's ?
Partly because in the female brain the reflective organs
are smaller, and partly because women mingle less with the
world, and therefore enjoy fewer opportunities of having
their prepossessions effaced by the friction of society. If
men would address themselves more to the intellect, and
less to the vanity of females, the latter would not only get
rid of many prejudices, but occupy a far higher place as
intellectual beings than they can possibly do in the present
constitution of things.i^^ Queen Elizabeth, and the Cather-
ines of Russia, are striking examples of female vigour of
116 Thepresent century is more distinguished than any which has preceded
it for the production of eminent females. Witness BailUe, Hemans, Bowles,
and Landon, in poetry — Edgeworth, Ferriar, and the Porters, in prose,
fiction — De Stael and Martineau in political disquisition — and the illustrious
name of Sommerville, in the physical sciences. Such instances as the latter
three, sufficiently demonstrate that e\'ea in those walks where the male
intellect is supposed to be peculiarly strong, it may occasionally be rivalled
by that of the other sex j and that it would be so much oftener, were women
more favourably circumstanced for the development of their energies, can
hardly admit of a doubt. Still, in a general sense, the superior size of the
male brain will always give that sex a superiority.
196 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
intellect; and the present age boasts of many illustrious ex^
amples, though in a different sphere of life, and in a different
May activity of brain exist with little power ?
It often does. A small brain in combination with a high
nervous or sanguine temperament, will display activity;
but, from its deficient dimensions, power, or intensity of
function, will be awanting. To display the latter quality, a
large brain is necessary. Dr. Spurzheim was of opinion,
that length of fibre in the brain produces activity, and that
breadth communicates power.
May a person of common-place talent show potver of mind?
He may, but it Vvill be the power of the propensities^
and not of the intellect. A dog-fighter or an ignorant
hackney-coachman, may, in this sense, be said to show more
cerebral vigour than a Shakspeare or a Bacon.
Haue all nations the same tendency to emancipate them-
selves from superstition ?
They have not. Other things, such as education and
intercourse with other nations, being equal, those nations
in which the reflective organs exist in greatest perfection,
will most readily unthrall themselves from superstitious
absurdities. The difiiculty of getting quit of them, however,
must be doubly great, even with good intellect, where a
large development of Wonder and Veneration is common,
as is the case with the Hindoos and other Orientals.
What nations possess the most intellectual form of head?
Those undoubtedly which are of that variety denominated
the white or Caucasian. Nations with this form of head,
have a strong tendency to progress in refinement; while most
ether races remain in their primitive state of barbarism, or,
at most, never go much beyond it. If the Negroes, the
American Indians, the Hottentots, and other savage tribes,
had possessed the European form of brain, they would have
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 197
civilized themselves many centuries ago, and been in every
respect on a par with the whites. On the contrary, they
have done nothing for themselves, and the little that has
been done for them is the work of others. Some of these
races are so deficient in intellect, that it has been found im-
practicable to educate them: such seems to be the case with
the aborigines of New Holland, Van Dieman's Land, and the
United States of America. In the white races, on the con-
trary, even though placed under the most unfavourable circum-
stances for moral and intellectual improvement, as in Turkey
and modern Greece, we can see the seeds of all the noblest
faculties of our nature; and no sooner is the dead weight of
tyranny and superstition which prevents their growth
removed, than they burst into all the promise of a fruitful
harvest. The Mongolian form of head has an intellectual
development between that of the Caucasian and Ethiopian ;
and, accordingly, we find that some of the nations which
possess it, such as the Chinese and Japanese, have made
considerable strides in civilization; but having attained this,
they continue stationary, as we at present find them, and
seem incapable of advancing a step farther, at least by their
own efibrts. When the frontal and coronal regions of the
brain are generally well developed in a nation, its tendency
will be towards intellectual and moral pursuits; and unless
some strong external counteracting agency is at work, the
people will speedily become civilized. Where the posterior
and basilar regions predominate, the nation will be governed
by the lower propensities, and civilization be an imperfect
process. In the following sketches we have a Carib and a
Teutonic head; the latter is the type of head prevailing among
the civilized nations of Europe, and its immense superiority
in the regions of sentiment and intellect is obvious at a
single glance. Ungovernable propensities, and wretched
morality and intelligence, are the distinguishing features of a
people with the Carib form of head.
Are any of the lower animals gifted with reason?
Some of them are so, although it is common to denv
them the possession of this quality. If a dog leaps upon a
table and is well whipped for doing so, why does he cease to
repeat the offence ? Simply because his reason tells him
that a repetition of it will lead to renewed punishment.
Have all portions of the human brain corresponding
poi'tions in the brains of the lower animals f
No. The convolutions in which Veneration, Wonder,
Conscientiousness, and Ideality reside, are peculiar to the
Is not Phrenology a difficult science^ seeing that it requires
attention to so many circumstances, such as age, tempera-
ment, health of brain, and education?
Phrenology is not difficult to those who will take the
trouble of studying it as it ought to be studied; and even if
it were difficult, this is no argument against its utility and
truth. With regard to the number of circumstances to which
it demands attention, the science is not otherwise situated
than any other. They are part and parcel of itself; they
are certain of the conditions that belong to it : and to study
phrenology without attending to them, would be as absurd
as to attempt to get a proper knowledge of physiology
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 199
without anatomy, or of astronomy without mathematics.
Phrenology regards not merely the form and size of the
brain, as is often ignorantly supposed, but also the diversified
causes which affect its activity and vigour, the laws accord-
ing to which those causes operate, and, in general every
circumstance tending to influence the mental powers. ^^"^
Does not Phrenology lead to materialism ?
If by materialism is meant the identity of mind and matter,
it leads to nothing of the kind; phrenologists expressly
declaring their belief that the brain is not the mind, but
simply the organized medium through which, in this life, it
manifests itself. Gall and Spurzheim were immaterialists,
and so are the most eminent of their disciples, including Mr.
117 The opponents of Phrenology are continually disregarding these
conditions. Phrenologists positively declare, that no correct inference can
be deduced ia cases of old age and diseased brainy yet we had lately the
skull of Dean Swift brought forward as an evidence against the science,
in the face of the notorious fact, that the Dean died at the age of seventy-
eight, and had been subject to loss of memory, and frantic fits of passion,
eleven years before his death, and that the last five years of his life were
passed in idiocy. The most amusing thing connected with such cases is,
that phrenologists are accused of always having a loop-hole to escape by.
If they had made it one of the principles of the science, that from an old and
diseased brain, it could be inferred what sort of character the individual pos-
sessed in youth and health, andif such a test were found, on trial, completely
to fail, the only inference would be, that the phrenologists were wrongj
but when they distinctly state the conditions of their science, what right has
any man, in testing it, to overlook these conditions, and then set up a cry
about loop-holes ? If a medical man were asked how much laudanum might
be safely given to an adult, and were to answer, forty drops, would he be
responsible if the person who asked him were to give the same quantity to
a child, and thus destroy it? As well might this person accuse him of
getting out by a loop-hole, when he declared that the dose was distinctly
mentioned as for an adult, and not for a child. If the opponents of Phreno-
logy choose to try this science by rules which its professors positively re-
nounce, they are acting a part equally illogical and absurd.
118 The following sensible remarks from a religious publication, show
the absurdity of this charge. " Tliis doctrine may, or it may not, be true.
200 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
Does Phrenology i by making dispositions depend upon the
shape of the hrain^ lead to the destruction of responsibility ?
Phrenology leaves the question of responsibility precisely
as it found it.^^^ No person now pretends that every one is,
by nature, equally talented and virtuous. The Scriptures
distinctly recognize a difference of moral and intellectual
gifts, when they announce, that " unto whomsoever much
is given, of him shall be much required;" clearly declaring,
that God did not make every one alike, and that He would
exact from us in proportion to the degree with which w&
were gifted with His bounties — demanding one talent from
one man, and two from another. The Scriptures thus point
but it certainly does not appear to us to be fairly liable to the charge of
materialism. That certain cerebral organs are connected with certain
mental faculties does not appear to us to involve materialism, any more
than the fact that the eye is the organ of seeing, or the ear of hearing ; cer-
tainly not more than the old and very widely entertained supposition that
the brain is the seat of thought. That the soul is connected with a set of
material organs, through which it holds comm union with the external world,
and that that connexion, though it may undergo very great modifications,
is destined to endure for ever, are doctrines which nobody either denies, or
supposes to involve materialism. And what more materialism is involved
in the supposition that a particular organ is connected with a particular
faculty, we do not see. — Edinburgh Christian Instructor.
119 I have elsewhere spoken of the attacks made by some persons upon
modern geologists, on the ground of their discoveries being hostile to re-
ligion. The Rev. Mr. Sedgwick chastises the presumptuous ignorance of
these individuals with well-merited severity. " There is another class of
men," says he, " who pursue geology by a nearer road, and are guided by
a different light. Well-intentioned they may be, but they have betrayed no
small self-sufficiency, along with a shameful want of knowledge of the fun-
damental facts they presume to write about; hence they have dishonoured
the literature of this country by Mosaic Geology, Scripture Geology, and
other works of cosmogony with kindred titles, wherein they have over,
looked the end and aim of revelation, tortured the book of life out of its
proper meaning, and wantonly contrived to bring about a collision between
natural phenomena and the Word of God." These remarks apply with
equal force to the attempt which has more than once been made to place
Phrenology at variance with religion.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 201
out a marked difference of endowment among men, and
Phrenology does no more. For such differences there must
be some cause, and the science in question ascribes them to
peculiarities of physical organization in the brain; but to
say that this leads to irresponsibility more than any other
doctrine which admits of natural differences of mental en-
dowment, is to assert a palpable and childish absurdity.i^o
Matter being subject to death. Phrenology., by connecting
the mind with it, surely militates against the doctrine of the
immortality of the soul ?
In reality, it does nothing of the kind. All that Phreno-
logists contend for is, that in the present life, material
organs are necessary for the mental manifestations, just as
eyes and ears are necessary for sight and hearing, or a
stomach for digestion. The opposite doctrine, that in this
state of being the mind acts independently of organization,
does, in reality, militate against the immortality of the soul,
and degrades the mind to a level with the dust; for it makes
the soul a changeable essence, subject to infinite alterations —
120 " Simple aud unprejudiced observation of human life is, we imagine,
sufficient to prove the innateness of the faculties, and that the individuals of
the race are endowed with them in diflferent degrees : Phrenology merely
confirms the results of observation, and elucidates the causes of perceived
and indubitable phenomena. It is absurd, therefore, to object to Phrenology
in particular on the score of necessity, and to allow the other systems to
remain undisturbed as perfectly harmless. If the new system leads to ne-
cessity, it is impossible to avoid the conclusion, that the old systems lead to
it also. Christianity itself — which teaches the innateness of human dispo-
sitions, and the inherent variety of their force among individuals — which
teaches that ' the tree is known by his fruit,' and that ' a good man,'out of
the good treasure of the heart, bringeth forth good things, and an evil man,
out of the evil treasure, bringeth forth evil things ' (Matt. xii. 33, 35.),
— Christianity itself, we say, is equally liable to the charge. The objectors
ought to be aware, that if they could prove Phrenology to have, in this re-
spect, an evil tendency, they would, at the very same time, inevitably
demonstrate the evil tendency of the Christian religion. Unless they are
prepared for this result, which possibly has not occurred to them, they will
act wisely in quitting the field." — Phrenological Journal, vol. viii. p, 547.
202 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
weak and fickle in infancy, •vigorous in manhood, im-
becile in old age, and not unfrequently afflicted with
idiocy and madness. If an immaterial spirit be liable to
such changes, why may it not be subject to death itself?
Those, therefore, who oppose Phrenology on the above
ground, are casting aside a doctrine which does not bear
against the immortality of the soul, and blindly grasping at
one which almost necessarily infers its destructibility.
Is not madness a disease of the mindf
Not such, properly speaking, although it is customary so
to consider it. Madness arises from a distempered state of
the organic apparatus by which the mind works; it is a
symptom of diseased brain, just as indigestion is of dis-
ordered stomach. Considered as a separate entity, we may
as well speak of the death of the mind, as of its disease.
In short, we ascribe madness to an unhealthy state of the
instrument which the mind makes use of; as, in looking
through a telescope, the glass of which is soiled, we see
objects obscurely, not from any defect of the objects them-
selves, but from their being seen through an imperfect
Can the particular form of madness under which a per-
son labours, be surmised by examination of his head?
This may often be done with wonderful accuracy. If an
organ in the head of an insane person predominates ver}'-
much over the others, we may infer, with every chance of
being right in our conjecture, that this organ is in a state of
morbid excitement, and that therein lies the disease. If a
patient in a mad-house is presented to us with an inordinate
development of the organ of Cautiousness, there is every
likelihood that he labours under excessive apprehension, and
great lowness of spirits. If with this we find Veneration
amply displayed, he probably is afflicted with religious
melancholy. If Self-Esteem is large, he, in all likelihood,
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. 203
supposes himself some great personage ; and so on with
respect to other organs — the largest being always the most
likely to get into a state of disease.
What class of persons are likely to be the most bitter
enemies of Phrenology ?
Those who themselves possess a defective moral or intel-
lectual development. Some men of great talent and perfect
integrity, have opposed the science through ignorance; but
their opposition, so far from being of an immitigable charac-
ter, would disappear at once before the light of a proper
knowledge of the subject. This has already happened in
many instances; and some who formerly ridiculed Phren-
ology as an idle chimera, are now among the most able and
enthusiastic of its supporters. Where the development,
however, is morally or intellectually defective, the opposi-
tion will continue, in the face of any evidence, however
What is the main object of Phrenology ?
This is made sufficiently apparent by the whole tenor of
the preceding pages, and hardly admits of a condensed
reply. It may be stated briefly, that the purpose of the
science is to give man a knowledge of himself; to point out
121 " Neither Homer's Thersites, whose cranium was 'misshapen,' nor
any of Shakspeare's personages, with ' foreheads ^Tillanously low,' could
have been easily proselyted to the doctrines of Phrenology. The reason is
obvious. Their own heads would not have 'passed muster.' Their belief,
therefore, would have been self -condemnatory. And as no man is bound, in
common law, to give evidence against himself, neither is it very consistent
with the laws of human nature, for any one to believe, more especially to
avow his belief, to his own disparagement. As the hump-backed, knock-
kneed, and bandy-legged, have an instinctive liostility to the exercise of
gymnastics, it is scarcely to be expected that the flat-heads, apple-heads,
and sugar-loaf-heads, will be favourably disposed to that of Phrenology.
Nor will those whose brains are so ponderous behind, and light before, that
their heads seem in danger of tilting backward." — Professor Caldtcell's A'ctc
Views of Fenitentiary Discipline, Sfc. Philadelphia, 1829.
204 MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
the true method of studying the mind, and of directing and
applying its energies to proper uses. Phrenology is a study
which tends eminently to virtue; in particular, it teaches
toleration and mutual forbearance. By demonstrating the
natural variety of human dispositions and talents, and the
innateness of our strongest motives, it loudly urges us to
judge charitably of the actions of others, and to make
allowance for their imperfections — to lay upon no individual
more than he is able to bear, and to desist from the mad
attempts which have so often been made to assimilate to
one common standard the opinions of the whole community.
On the philosophy of education, and on the treatment of
criminals and the insane, Phrenology throws a flood of light.
The relative size of the different organs is designated by the Edin-
burgh phrenologists as follows : —
4, very small.
The figure 12, therefore, annexed to the name of an organ, sig-
nifies that it is " rather full ; " 19 means that it is between " large"
and " very large ;" and so on.
The temperament of the individual whose head is examined, is
also noted ; and his education, as well as the circumstances in which
he has been surrounded, ought to be inquired into.
8, rather small.
12, rather full.
PHRENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTER OF GEORGE
CAMPBELL, EXECUTED FOR MURDER.
On the 29th of September, 1833, George Campbell was executed
at Glasgow for murder. As the crime was characterised by pecu-
liarly atrocious features, and his conduct, on receiving sentence,
marked by unparalleled ferocity, I was anxious to ascertain how far
the developments, in a phrenological point of view, harmonised
with so strongly marked and singular a character. Having asked
permission of the Magistrates to take a cast of his head after death,
the request was, in the most liberal manner, at once granted, and a
csst was accordingly taken. On examining this cast, I, as well as
every one conversant with Phrenology by whom it was seen, per-
ceived at once that it, in a most remarkable degree, confirmed the
doctrines of Gall. Conceiving, however, that a previous know-
ledge of the individual might have had some influence in swaying
our judgments, and making us see a greater analogy between the
physical organization and the mental character than was actually
warranted by circumstances, I came to the resolution of sending
the cast to an eminent phrenologist in Edinburgh, for the purpose
of learning what inference he — without any bias, and in perfect
ignorance of the person from whom it was taken — would draw from
it. To prevent the possibility of any suspicion being aroused on
his part, the cast was forwarded, not to him, but to another gentle-
man, who was requested to deliver it into his hands, without saying
whose head it was, by whom it was sent, or from what quarter it
came. To make assurance doubly sure, that portion of the neck
at the angle of the jaw, marked by the pressure of the rope, was
carefully removed. No external mark was thus left to indicate
that the person had perished by strangulation, nor did the counte-
nance display the slightest appearance of violent death. This fact
may be verified by any person who chooses to examine the cast.
The gentleman to whom it was sent, performed his part with scru-
pulous fidelity, and handed the cast to the object of its destination.
" Mr. ," says he, " had no information except what he has
prefixed to his paper, and the knowledge of the fact that the cast
was that of a dead man." This information refers to the age, tem-
perament, and education of the criminal — circumstances which
must, in the generality of cases, be known before any thing like a
just deduction can be drawn.
Campbell was of Irish parentage. In appearance he was a good-
looking and rather prepossessing young man. In stature he stood
about five feet seven inches, was cleanly made, and rather athletic.
While very young he entered the army, where he remained seven
years. Of his general conduct there, I am unable to learn any
thing that can be depended upon ; suffice it to say, that he was at
one time severely flogged for striking his sergeant. On leavingthe
army, he went to his father's house, but soon left it in consequence of
some family quarrels. He then took up his lodgings with a woman
named Hanlin, with whose daughter (and with the mother also, if
accounts can be trusted,) he lived in a state of fornication. Han-
lin's house was a most abandoned "one. Lord Meadowbank, one
of the judges before whom Campbell was tried, pronounced it,
with great truth and force of language, " a den of infamy, and the
old woman the presiding demon of the place." It was for murder-
ing this woman that Campbell paid the forfeit of his life. He had
frequently threatened to murder her, and one day carried his pur-
pose into effect, by literally, and in the most determined and fero-
cious manner, trampling her to death. After committing this
crime, he made no attempt to escape, but went and informed the
neighbours that the woman had killed herself by drinking. He
was apprehended, tried, mid convicted, very much to his own aston-
ishment; and when sentence was passed upon him, he burst forth
into a volley of imprecations against the judges, such as never be-
fore polluted a court of justice — threatening, at the same time,
with horrible language, to strike the criminal officers who offered
to remove him. Those present on the occasion describe his con-
duct as unutterably horrible and disgusting. On being taken to
the condemned cell, he seemed more attentive to his food than any
thing else, complained bitterly of the jail allowance, and expressed
great satisfaction when supplied with food of a better quality. He
was grossly ignorant, obdurate, and impenitent. The respectable
Catholic clergymen by whom he was attended (for he belonged to
the Church of Rome) had great difficulty in making him compre-
hend almost any thing. To the last he denied his guilt. He may
have acknowledged it privately to his confessor, but this, of
course, is not known. He was vain of his person, and inclined
to dress neatly. As a proof of this, he devoted a quarter of an hour,
immediately previous to his execution, to curling his hair. On
mounting the scaffold, he displayed wonderful firmness, walking
erectly, tossing his head back in a theatrical manner, and having a
bold swaggering appearance. All accounts agree in representing
his life, so far as it is known, as rude, turbulent, and debauched.
To the young woman with whom he cohabited, he was attached,
although this did not prevent him from occasionally beating her, £
suppose in his drunken fits. The attachment was mutual on her
part, and remained unweakened even after he murdered her mother;
she visited him in jail subsequently to his condemnation, and seemed
much affected by his situation. Having made these preliminary
remarks, let us now turn to the phrenological analysis. It is as
follows, and sufficiently vindicates the skill and acumen of the gen-
tleman by whom it was made : —
Plaster cast — size a little above average — temperament nervous-
bilious — age 25 — uneducated — dissipated.
Instinct of foody (Alimentiveness) large, ... 18
Amativeness, large, . . . . . . .19
Philoprogenitiveness, very large, . . . .20
Concentrativeness, full, 14
Adhesiveness, large, . . . .
Combativeness, very larg^e,
Destructiveness, very large,
Secretiveness, very large, .
. . .20
Acquisitiveness, large, . . . .
Self-Esteem, extra large,
Love of Approbation, very large.
Cautiousness, rather large.
Veneration, large, . .
Firmness, very large,
Conscientiousness, rather full,
Ideality, moderate, ....
Wit, moderate, .....
Imitation, rather full, ....
Individuality, rather large,
Colouring, full, . .
Locality, large, . .
Number, rather full,
Language, rather large.
Comparison, moderate, . . .
Causality, moderate, ....
The following is an accurate profile of the head from which
these developments were taken : —
, CHARACTER INFERRED.
I was struck with the resemblance of this cast to that of the too
famous Thurtell, in the Phrenological Society's collection; only
that Thurtell's Benevolence was larger, and his head generally
larger ; and on turning to the development preserved of Thurtell
in the Phrenological Journal, vol. I. page 328, (but not till I had
noted down that of the cast sent me,) I found them to agree to a
great extent. The individual from whom this cast was taken,
being uneducated, and having possessed an active temperament,
would give unrestrained vent to a degree of animalism and sel-
fishness, which must have rendered him a nuisance to his neigh-
bourhood. He has the organization of gross sensuality in all its
three points. Even when sober, he had a tendency to brawling
and bullying — a compound of impudent assurance, self-conceit,
vanity, insolence, tyranny, obstinacy, violence, and cruelty ; but,
when drunk, a strait-waiscoat, or a cell in the police-office,
would be absolutely necessary. He would be loud, boisterous,
opinionative, and contentious, and his oaths and imprecations
would be horrible ; while his abuse would have in it an energy,
malignity, and grossness, peculiarly his own. His selfishness would
be unmitigated ; grasping, without ever giving, would characterise
him. His indifierence to the misfortunes or sufferings of others
would be marked; and scenes of suffering, such as executions,
floggings, surgical operations, prize and cock fights, would greatly
delight him. A single, word, which he felt as slighting or ridi-
culing him, would be returned by a blow ; but many an insult
he would put on others, and in many a brawl he would be engaged.
Nevertheless, he would not expose himself to unnecessary dan-
ger, but would calculate his adversary's strength before he pro-
ceeded to beat and bruise him or her; for his utter want of
refinement and generosity would make no difference between
sex or age, saving always the very young — for the only soft cor-
ner of his heart seems to have been love of children. He was
cunning, and probably a measureless liar, both in his vain-glorious
boastings, and for all other selfish ends. He was a plotter and
manoeuvrer ; but although, from miserable reasoning powers, his
schemes would be ill laid, he would have great pride in being
thought a "deep dog." He was superstitious, a lover of the
marvellous, and accessible to religious terrors ; a ghost would set-
tle him in his most boisterous moments. He would court society,
and dislike solitude, seeking, of course, to be always the cock of the
company ; for there would be about him a great share of vulgar
The knowing faculties seem good, and must have given con-
siderable aptness and quickness. The Locality would give a
roaming turn, and a knowledge of places. There must have
been order and arrangement, which might show themselves in
neatness and tidiness in dress. There is Music, or the love of it
strong ; and Time so largely endowed as not only to aid Music,
but to give the power of telling the hour at any time without
looking at the clock. The reflecting faculties are very poor in-
deed, which would produce a deficiency in sense, and an utter
blindness to the simplest consequences. This defect would ren-
der abortive many a plan to deceive. Gambling and betting
would have for this unfortunately organized being peculiar charms.
He loved money, and would not be scrupulous about the means of
getting it ; while every farthing of it would go for selfish and
chiefly sensual indulgences.
The cast appearing to have been taken after death, I asked and
was informed that the individual is dead, and " has ceased from
troubling ;" and I congratulate all who knew him on the rid-
dance. I should like to learn how he died — it could not be
peacefully in his bed. Query — Was he hanged for beating out
some one's brains, or otherwise murdering with ruthless brutality ?
If such was his fate, I have only to say, that in that enlightened
system of criminal treatment to which the country is coming, be-
cause it must, it needed not to have been so. A penitentiary de-
partment will come to be alloted for the constitutionally violent,
brutal, and cruel, who will be put within walls for a long course of
reformatory education on the first conviction by which their dan-
gerous character is clearly proved. In a penitentiary, founded on
the humane principle of reformation without inflictive vengeance,
even such a being as this mi^ht have been humanized : at least,
he would not have been permitted to annoy and endanger society,
by a long course of violence — to end, perhaps, in murder.
REMARKS ON THE FOREGOI'XG BY R. MACNISH.
I am doubtful whether Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness are so
large as is given here. The thickness of the temporal muscle not
being evident from a cast, has probably led the very able writer of
the foregoing to over-rate them. He seems also to have made
both Time and Tune larger than is justified by the appearance of
the cast. Some, who have seen the cast, have objected that the
distance from the ear to Individuality is larger than we might have
been prepared for; but Phrenologists have long ceased to regard that
measurement as any indication of the power of the intellect. The
distance may be caused by a lavge middle lobe of the brain, as is
the case in the present instance. The proper way to ascertain the
point, is to look how far forward the anterior lobe projects from
Constructiveness. The great size of Combativeness and Destruc-
tiveness (both 20) uncontrolled by his Benevolence, (which ranks
only so high as 11,) and called into fierce action by liquor, easily
accounts for the murder. His astonishment at the verdict of
" guilty" probably arose from deficiency in the power of under-
standing the force of testimony, owing to the smallness of the re-
flecting organs. Ignorant people are very apt to indulge in absurd
hopes. His great Love of Approbation, and his large Order, suf-
ficiently explain the foppish freak of arranging his hair in curls at
such a time, as well as the marked neatness of his dress as he ap-
peared upon the scaffold. It is difficult to say what his religious
feelings might have been, as probably his mind was never directed
to religion till after he was condemned. His denial of the crime
makes good his claim to the character of a liar. His Love of Ap-
probation (20) would induce him to make it appear that he was
innocent, and his Conscientiousness (only 13) would be no match
for this strong feeling. The affection of the woman for him was
very natural. He was a good-looking fellow, and was doubtless so
much attached to her by his large Adhesiveness as to display aflfec-
tion when in good humour ; and when strong marks of affection
are bestowed on a woman, she is certain, in most cases, to return
it. The organ on which the Instinct of Food is conceived to de-
pend, is as large as 18, which perhaps may explain his conduct
with respect to the jail provisions, already alluded to, as well as his
fondness for liquor. His good Time and Tune would probably
give him a fondness for dancing, for which his figure was well
adapted : but whether he really was given to this amusement, I
have not been able to learn ; that he was so, however, I have very
little doubt. His great Amativeness (19) was sufficiently apparent,
in the circumstances of his sensual career.
Altogether, the head of this man is such, that no good phrenolo-
gist, would hesitate one moment to say that the lower propensities
must have been very predominant, prevailing lamentably over the
Intellect and Moral Sentiments. His mode of life was extremely
unfavourable to the exercise of the two latter, and must have tended
to give to the first an enormous preponderance. Ignorance and
dissipation acting together on such a mind, could hardly lead to
any other result than the gallows. The analysis, to which I have
ventured to add these observations, will speak for itself. It is
perhaps one of the most skilful displays of phrenological acumen
of which we have any record, and speaks volumes for the science.
Wherever the man's character was known, the inference accords
most minutely with it ; and there is every reason to suppose, that,
were those points cleared up, of which we are still ignorant, the
correspondence between them and the deduction would be not
less striking. The concluding paragraph of the analysis is most
important, and well worthy the attention of legislators.
ANOTHER CASE IN WHICH THE NATURAL DISPOSITIONS AND
TALENTS WERE INFERRED FROM A CAST OF A HEAD.
About four years ago, a cast of a head was sent to Mr. Combe, by
a gentleman residing at a considerable distance from Edinburgh,
with a letter expressing " a strong curiosity to know what idea you
will form of the party, without any previous hint of his character,
and merelv by examining his head. I may mention simply," con-
tinues the writer of the letter, " that the head is that of an unedu-
cated person. If you will be so good as write me what you think,
I shall return you an answer at length, stating as fully as I can,
what I conceive to be the real character, intellectual and moral, of
the individual. Of this man I can speak minutely. He is a very
marked character ; and, so far as I know Phrenology, his head is a
complete index of himself." No other particulars were furnished.
Mr. Combe's engagements preventing him from undertaking this
task, he put the cast into the hands of James Simpson, Esq., who
examined it carefully, and drew out the following document: —
Cast of the head of an uneducated man, seemingly under middle
life — general size of head very large — temperament not discoverable
from the cast.
From spinal process of occipital bone to Individuality,
Concentrativeness to Comparison,
Hole of ear to occipital spine,
Do. to Individuality,
Do. to Firmness,
Destructiveness to Destructiveness,
Secretiveness to Secretiveness, .
Cautiousness to Cautiousness,
Ideality to Ideality, .
Constructiveness to Constructiveness,
Philoprogenitiveness to Individuality,
Anterior lobe of the brain, rather large
Portion of brain above Cautiousness, moderate
Do. above Causality, moderate.
Philoprogenitiveness, very large,
Adhesiveness, large, .
Self- Esteem, very large.
Love of Approbation, rather large
Cautiousness, rather large.
Benevolence, moderate, .
Ideality, rather full,
Wit, rather full,
Individuality, large, .
Form, rather large,
Locality, rather large,
Number, rather small,
Order, rather small,
Eventuality, rather large,
Time, rather large,
Tune, rather full,
Causality, full, .
Mr. says he knows this individual vs'ell. I fear that, if he
has had much to do vyith him, he knows him too well. His enor-
mous head must give him great power of character, and I wish I
could say that that power is all in the direction of good. Without
education, and, of course, in inferior society, I could not answer
for this individual not running headlong into the coarsest vicious
indulgences. The animal endowment is excessive j and although
the intellectual is very considerable, the moral is sadly deficient.
The Amativeness is very great, and it is scarcely to be expected
that it has been restrained from coarse and selfish indulgence.
The individual may have married, and may have continued in the
state as well as entered into it, and loved wife and children, (the
latter passionately ; ) but he would usually be a harsh and tyranni-
cal head of a family. He is loud, domineering, and assuming, and
probably abusive and imprecatory. He is deficient in kindness
and mildness. His haughty and assuming character will likewise
mark him out of doors ; and his pride, obstinacy, opinionativeness,
touchiness, resentfulness, and violence, must have involved him in
many a quarrel and brawl. He must be tremendous when drunk.
He has a prodigious conceit of himself; and although he is not
indifferent to the praise of others, (which, however, he seldom
gets,) he snaps his fingers at their opinion when against him.
His character is intensely selfish. There is much savoir /aire,
amounting even to cunning and hypocrisy. He is proud of being
thought deep, studies the weak side of those with whom he deals,
drives a hard and knowing bargain, gives truth to the winds, and
glories in taking his merchant at disadvantage. He loves money,
and grasps it so hard that it is difficult to get it out of his clutches
for his just debts. His perceptions of justice are so feeble, that
he will consider justice, if directed against himself, as injustice,
and even injury. His money will all go for his own animal indul-
gences, even to the neglect of his family, when he is pinched.
Charity or benevolence never drew sixpence from him. If he
can both enjoy sensuality and hoard money, he will do both. He
possesses very considerable intellectual powers, which will be
directed steadily in the service of his propensities and selfishness.
If he has failed to make money in a coarse and plentiful way, it
must proceedyrom his deficient Conscientiousness affecting his credit.
His intellectual manifestations are coarse and inelegant, but they
have considerable vigour. He is shrewd, observing, remembering,
and sagacious, with a great power of concentrative application of
mind to his purpose. He might succeed as a draughtsman or sur-
veyor, but does not seem to have an}^ mechanical genius about him.
He is probably an indifferent workman with his hands, except in
fighting. His head is his implement. I should expect to find him
unpunctual, disorderly, slovenly, and dirty. He would have figured
as a warrior or marauder in barbarous times ; force is his engine,
and he possesses great power of character to wield it. He is not
insensible to religious impressions, if they were ever pressed home
upon him ; but his religion will be abject and selfish, and any
thing but the practical morality of Christianity.
This individual could not match shades of colour.
P.S. — On reflecting on the foregoing character, it has occurred,
that although ail that has been said is in the man's nature, his
Secretiveness and Intellect directing his own interest, may have pre-
vented so brosd a manifestation of it as to be generally recognised ;
or by any but those who have seen him long, closely, and intimately.
An account of the individual was subsequently drawn up by the
gentleman who had sent the cast. It is as follows : —
Character of the uneducated man, deduced from along and intimate
knowledge of the individual.
I have had many opportunities of knowing well the character of
this individual, which I have made a point of studying minutely,
both as a matter of curiosity and as an interesting subject of philo-
sophical speculation. He is a native of Wales, and thirty-two
years of age ; he stands six feet high, and is very strongly made.
I am not well versed in the doctrine of the temperaments ; but if
there be such a temperament as the sanguineo-melancholic, I should
say it is his. Though perfectly illiterate, and ignorant upon almost
every subject, there is something about the man which makes it
impossible for any body to despise him. Taken individually, all
his qualifications are despicable, yet, considered in the aggregate,
they are of that character which renders it difficult to view him
contemptuously. His temper is decidedly bad : it is not merely-
quick, but obdurate and sour ; and if he once conceives a dislike
to any one, it is almost impossible to remove it. , He is extremely
jealous, pettish, and suspicious, and cannot tolerate quizzery of any
description. At the same time, although on some points it is not
difficult to play upon him, yet he has such an immense opinion of
his own penetration, that he conceives no man could attempt such
a step without being instantly detected. Any opinion which he
may form he views as infallible, and all the evidence in existence
will not make him abandon it. I have no doubt whatever, from
what I have seen and known, that he is tyrannical and domineering.
He is also very quarrelsome — so much so, that it is disagreeable to
walk on the streets with him, lest he get involved in a scrape.
He has no idea of accommodating himself to others, but goes
doggedly along, pushing aside those who are not exactly disposed
to get out of his way. He is a capital pugilist. The science of
boxing he has studied indefatigably — not, as it occurs to me, as
an exercise, but to render himself formidable. The consequence
is, that he has got into fifty rows ; and if, at any time, you meet
him, the chances are that his eyes are either in mourning from
blows received, or his knuckles injured from the punishment given
to his antagonist. His habits are altogether of a low order. He
has no fondness for, but rather an aversion to, elegant and virtuous
femiale society ; and his associates are mostly prize-fighters, and
sporting characters generally. With regard to his amative pro-
pensity, every body acquainted with him knows that it is very
great; he is, in fact, the slave of that feeling, and never speaks of
a woman except in an animal point of view. I think I may safely
say, that I never knew a person so perfectly indifferent to poetry,
painting, fine scenery, and every thing beautiful in the material
world. It is certain that the Cowgate, or Wapping, would excite
about as much of the sublime in his mind as Glencoe or the Vale
of Chamouni. If people in his company begin to speak of such
subjects, and show any rapture, he gets gloomy and irritated, pro-
nounces the conversation " d d stuff," and, unless it be aban-
doned, he leaves the room. On the contrary, get upon fighting,
and, like the war-horse, his eye instantly lightens up — he becomes
the cock of the company, and describes, with intense delight, the
many brawls he has been in, — shows how he pounded this man and
that man, and exemplifies, in the most graphic manner imaginable,
all the different details of a fight. Indeed, his stories on such
subjects are master-pieces in their way. They abound in details,—
are astonishingly circumstantial ; and if he tells the story fifty
times, it never varies. I have no doubt v^'hatever that many of his
alleged exploits are mere lies ; but they are certainly the best put-
together ones I ever listened to, and look prodigiously like truth.
In fact, their excessive circumstantiality and detail, and the un-
varying way in which he tells them, long imposed upon me, and
convinced me that, in spite of their improbability, they must be
true, till I ascertained from unquestionable evidence, that some of
them, at least, were merely ingenious fabrications, got up for the
purpose of aggrandizing himself.
He is very fond of praise, especially of his person, which he
considers faultless. This, indeed, is the only vulnerable point
about him, and if the thing is done judiciously, he will swallow a
most enormous dose ; but if he once supposes they are quizzing
him, it will require no small restraint to prevent him from inflict-
ing summary punishment on the quizzer. His great ambition is
to be a first-rate boxer, or possess great strength ; and so strong is
the feeling, that if the choice were given him of being able to
write Paradise Lost, or beat Jem Ward, there is no doubt he would
fix upon the latter. Literature and literary men he views with
great contempt. He says, that if he had received a proper educa-
tion, and possessed the same advantages as other people, he could
have written as good works as any man that ever lived. With all
this he has no love whatever for reading. Indeed, he confesses, —
I sincerely believe, for the purpose of making his natural genius
appear more extraordinary — that he never read a volume through
all his life, a fact which I perfectly credit. The only reading he
ever indulges in, is the account of the prize-fights in Bell's Life in
One strong feature in his character is a total want of punctuality.
When he makes an appointment, it is the merest chance in the
world if he keeps it. Indeed, he does not seem to think there is
the slightest impropriety. in violating such engagements. He is
also slovenly in his dress, and altogether what you would call a
careless, reckless sort of being.
So far as I know the maa, I should say that his character is
greatly deficient in philanthropy. He is disposed to take harsh
views of things, and judge people's actions uncharitably. When
offended at any one, he is also prone to curse at him and abuse him
without mercy. Indeed, the whole texture of his mind is singu-
larly inelegant ; and I do not believe, that, under any system of
education, it would be possible to have made him, in manners or
conversation, a suitable companion for well-bred people.
With regard to his conscientiousness, I really am at a loss what
to say. For the first six years of my acquaintance with him, I
considered him the most simple-minded and honest of human
beings, and, for any thing 1 can prove to the contrary, 1 might
consider him so still ; but I must say candidly, that some reports
got into circulation against him in 1829, any thing but creditable to
his honesty. He was accused (with what truth I know not) of
having appropriated sums of money which did not belong to him ;
and a stigma was attached to his character on this account, which I
sincerely hope, and almost believe, is false, but which many per-
sons affirm to be too true. This is all 1 can say. Be the matter
as it may, it has done him great injury, and prevented him ever
since from getting respectable employment.
I have spoken of his w^ant of punctuality. This irregular pro-
pensity is manifested in the preference he gives to dining in chop-
houses to doing so in his own house, and in his fondness for late
hours. Indeed, he is exceedingly unsystematic, though both
shrewd, observant, and sagacious. He seems, in an argument, ta
be quite incapable of proceeding upon general principles ; and al-
though he will never strike his own colours, he invariably mysti-
fies and tires out his opponents.
He is ambitious of being thought formidable in drinking and
eating. I have heard him boast before ladies of the quantity of
porter he could drink, and beef-steaks he could consume. He
is exceedingly pleased when any one compliments him upon his
amative powers; and, in short, swallows with avidity whatever
tends to exalt him in the scale of manhood. The only intellectual
quality which he is vain of having imputed to him is his great
penetration and his talents for argument. He alleges, that were
he better educated, he would be quite invincible at the latter
1 think he has some mimicry about him, but it is all of the
low kind. I have seen him take off some of his acquaintances
pretty adroitly. He has also a fondness for vulgar jokes. For
instance, I have seen him get hold of some half-cracked crea-
ture, and try how many pies he could eat — he himself laughing
heartily, and enjoying the exhibition with great delight. I re-
collect of him getting a couple of fellows to try which of them
would eat most rapidly a quantity of hot porridge, the winner
to get five shillings for his performance. On another occasion he
promised a carter two shillings if he would drink off half a gallon
of small beer.
With regard to his love of money, I am at a loss what to say.
Any time that I have seen him spend money, it always occur-
red to me as if it were done more out of a pure spirit of osten-
tation than from liberality. Others have frequently made the
same remark. I cannot bring myself to say that any particular
fondness for the acquisition of wealth on his part ever occurred
to me : but on this point I am not competent to speak. Of
one thing, however, I am certain, that most of the money he lays
out is expended in the bagnio, the chop-house, or among the
pugilists. He spends little in clothing, and I believe never pur-
chased a book in his life time.
I cannot speak of his religious feelings. I never savs^ any ex-
hibited; but he has been most unfavourably situated for their
manifestation. If he once took it into his head to be religious, he
would be such a saint as Louis XI. or Catherine de' Medici.
In short, he is a man who may be persuaded into a thing by
flattery, but it is impossible to make him move a step by any
other consideration. His obstinacy is very great, and proof against
almost any thing. If he were in a station where he had plenty
of scope and little restraint, I think he would be extremely
tyrannical and fond of inflicting punishment. I have often heard
him express great rage against Colonel Brereton for not sabring
the people at Bristol, and swear that if he had had the command
on that occasion, he would have slaughtered them by hundreds.
This I believe firmly he would not scruple to do in such cir-
cumstances. If he took a fancy for a person, and that person
did exactly as he wished, I think he would sacrifice life and
limb to serve him ; but the slightest symptom of the individual
acting independently and thinking for himself would make him
cast him off. With regard to his love of children, I should
think it considerable. At least children — with the exception of
his three brothers to whom he is much attached — are the only
people towards whom I ever observed him to take a fancy. His
letters are stiff, and indicate a deficient command of language ;
though in his capacity of a clerk he has had plenty of experience
in letter writing. His arithmetical powers are not great. I
should think them below par. That he would be intensely liti-
gious it is impossible to doubt. The expression of his face is
sinister and gloomy, and indicates dogged determination and
great want of mental flexibility.
REMARKS BY MR. SIMPSON ON THE PRECEDING ACCOUNT.
This character is substantially the same as that transmitted to
. To the postscript of the latter it gives great value. In spite
of six years' intimate acquaintance with, and minute study of, this
singular person, Mr did not know an important feature in his
character — his deficient Conscientiousness, but had it only from re-
ports. Yet he narrates several traits quite inconsistent with Con-
scientiousness, although he himself does not appear to observe how
CHANGE OF CHARACTER AND TALENTS, AND A SIMULTANEOUS
CHANGE IN THE FORM OF THE HEAD.
The following observations are reprinted in the 50th number of
the Phrenological Journal, from an American work, entitled *' Prac-
tical Phrenology, by Silas Jones," published at Boston, in 1836.
"Great changes in moral character and talents sometimes mani-
fest themselves in indivduals, and the question is put to the phreno-
logist, whether the head changes to a corresponding extent ? Thi&
question requires a very candid and considerate answer.
"1. It is important to remark upon the nature of the change
which takes place in character, before we attempt to account for it
by a change in the size of organs.
" The first change is that which takes place before the individual
arrives at maturity. During this forming period of character great
changes often take place, especially in those who are about equally
inclined to good and to evil practices. The different parts of char-
acter develope themselves just as circumstances draw them out at
the usual age of their manifestation. More than twenty-five of the
primitive faculties shew themselves during the first eighteen months^
others appear at subsequent periods, and different groups claim as-
cendency at different times. As to all the changes of this period,
there can be no question that the shape of the head will change as
the character changes. However, at this period the organs change
much in relative activity, without an equally corresponding change
in size. Those organs which have never been excited by their ap-
propriate objects will have been less active than those which have
had abundant exercise ; but commence the exercise of the organs
by the stimulus of their own objects, and you draw them at once
into activity, and, as they become active, the structure improves as
well as increases in size. We must not suppose that there is no
other difference in cerebral organs but that of size. The differ-
ences in perfection of structure and tendency to activity, arising from
habits of exercise, are quite as great as those of activity. Hence,
judgments formed of the strength of particular faculties, without
inquiry as to the education they have received, are liable to error.
" 2. Alterations which take place in the character of individuals
after they arrive at maturity, are seldom any more than a change
in the objects on which the faculties act. When this is the case,
no change in the form of the head is to be expected. The faculty
which respects talents, office, rank, and wealth, adores the Deity ;
and he that has turned from the worship of idols to the worship of
the only true God, has brought into action no new organ ; and,
tmless he worship with more fervour, his reverence will not be in-
■creased in activity.
•' 3. Changes in the form of head are only to be expected where
there has been a great change in the degree of activity of organs.
If organs which have been very active cease to be so, while others
which have been idle are drawn into great activity, then, in a few
years, we may, in many instances, be able to notice a change. This
embraces the several classes of cases.
" 1. Where an individual is not advanced beyond the meridian
of life, and has become very thoughtful and studious for a few
years, giving great exercise to the reflective organs, they will per-
ceptibly increase in size. There are several facts which go to prove
this. So, where individuals have been suddenly changed from
situations which did not give much exercise and excitement to the
perceptive organs, to those which required great exercise and ac-
tivity of them, we may expect a sudden growth of those organs.
" But these cases are so rare, and the changes are so gradual,
that much pains should be taken to collect the facts with accuracy.
Mr. Deville has been engaged in taking casts of individuals at dif-
ferent periods and ages, for the purpose of making comparisons.
" I have several facts, founded not upon observations made from
comparison of casts, but still they are such as to be entitled to our
confidence. A young artist of my acquaintance had formerly been
a dealer in dry goods, and, a few years since, commenced the busi-
ness of portrait-painting. He had been absent for several years
from his mother ; when on a visit to her, she called him up to her,
and, observing every part of his countenance carefully, said, ' Your
forehead has altered in form since I saw you, all the lower part of
it seems to be pushed out.' This was the careful observation of a
fond mother, when tracing out the lineaments of a beloved son. It
was no doubt true. Nearly all the perceptive organs are now very
decidedly large ; and he says they have increased in size since he
commenced his new vocation. Young men in cities, it will be
found, have greater power and activity in the perceptive organs
than those who have always been in country situations. There is
a constantly changing succession of objects in cities, which give
ample scope and stimulus to these organs. These rapid changes
are unfavourable to quiet reflection, hence the knowing organs
acquire a great ascendency.
" I have noticed, in very many instances, that experienced navi-
gators have the organs of Locality very prominent, and probably in
•consequence of great exercise of them. So, with blind people,
these organs become very large. It is the case of a blind man in
Boston, who travels in every part of that city without a guide.
'* 3. A third class of cases is that in which a change takes place
in the feelings, as where one or two feelings become exceedingly,
and almost morbidly, active for many years, as in the case of De-
structiveness and Secretiveness in G. M. Gottfried. Also, in con-
sequence of some great shock to some feeling, as to Adhesiveness,
Self-Esteem, Hope, or Love of Approbation, there may be a change
in the form of the head in the regions of those organs.
" I have, in hundreds of instances, seen very striking depressions
in the heads of persons of mature years, but seldom in the heads of
children. These depressions are most frequent at the localities of
those organs which are most liable to great neglect or suffering.
" It is not to be supposed that changes in the form of the skull
externally, will be co-extensive with every slight change in the
habits of thought and feeling. The organs may change greatly in
activity without such a change in volume externally as to be notice-
able. The organs most used may be contiguous to others most
neglected. In such a case the one would be diminished as the
other increased. Neither protuberances nor depressions are to be
looked for in ordinary cases. The practised phrenologist does not
need them to enable him either to find the location of the organs,
or the innate dispositions and talents. They are rather to be re-
garded as rare occurrences and curiosities, which have enabled
Gall, Spurzheim, and others, to conjecture the location of organs,
which have since been proved by thousands of well-observed facts,
not less conclusive, although less peculiar."
This subject is more fully discussed by Dr. Andrew Combe, in
the Phrenological Journal, No. 51, in which is published a remark-
able case of contemporaneous change of dispositions and cerebral
development, by Mr. Kirtley, surgeon at Barnard Castle.
Mr. Deville took a cast of the head of a gentleman, thirty-two
years old, and a second cast when he was at the age of thirty-six.
For three or four years previously to taking the first cast, this gen-
tleman was very fond of hoarding money, and his desire of accumu-
lating had rendered him so penurious and unhappy, that, though
his property was considerable, his friends were afraid of his becom-
ing insane from the sheer dread of being reduced to beggary. They
endeavoured to reason him out of this feeling, and sent him abroad
with a gentleman, by whose attention and kindness he completely
overcame the propensity, and made some progress in the study of
the classics and of music. Mr. Deville states, that, upon measuring
and comparing the two casts, he found the head to have consider-
ably increased in size at the situation of the organs of Benevolence,
Ideality, and the Reflecting Faculties. " I have," he adds, " two
well authenticated casts of a great artist, whose life is well known.
The first is a mask taken in 1792, when he was about forty-five
years of age ; the other a cast of his head taken after death, in 1816.
Now, it is well known that he became a hoarder and groveller after
money during the last fifteen or twenty years of his life ; nay, he
became miserable from fear of coming to want, though he possessed
extensive property, besides his pictures, which were of great value.
Now, upon applying the callipers at Acquisitiveness, the second
cast is found to be nearly four-eighths of an inch broader than that
taken in 1792, while, at the same time, its height has diminished;
it has become flatter at Benevolence, and wider at Acquisitiveness,
Tc some this may appear extraordinary, and, had I known only a
single instance, I should have been silent ; but as I have now be-
tween fifty and sixty cases of alteration of the form of the skull, ac-
companied by change of character, the subject assumes an impor-
tant character, and calls to the extensive investigation."
At page 186, I have quoted an extract from a paper by Mr.
Robert Cox, in the 9th volume of the Phrenological Journal. It
is entitled '' Observations on the Mutual Influence of the Mental
Faculties," and contains some very luminous and novel views on
this subject. From this interesting article I copy the following re-
marks : —
" Of all the causes which excite Destructiveness, the disagreeable
activity of Self- Esteem is the most frequent and powerful ; and,
indeed, there are few occasions on which it does not partake in the
suffering produced by offence of the other faculties. For, as Lord
Bacon remarks, 'contempt is that which putteth an edge upon
anger, as much or more than the hurt itself; and, therefore, when
men are ingenious in picking out circumstances of contempt, they
do kindle their anger much.' Self-Esteem, when ill-regulated,
makes individuals prefer themselves to every other person, and gives
them a tendency to engross as much as possible the sources of hap-
piness for their own peculiar advantage. Such men are therefore
offended when they see other people either enjoying gratifications
in which they have not the good fortune to partake — the mode of
activity of Self-Esteem being in this case denominated envy, or
grasping at what they themselves are desirous to obtain, whereby
the emotion oi jealousy is produced. The occasions which give
birth to envy and jealousy, vary according to the faculties which
happen to be, along with Self-Esteem, energetic. Thus, an un-
married lady, possessing large organs of the domestic aflections,
combined with a great development of Self-esteem, will be ex-
ceedingly apt to envy such of her acquaintances as are happily mar-
ried, and surrounded by a promising and healthy family ; while she
will harbour jealousy towards any one who endeavours to secure
the affections of the man whose love she desires for herself. A self-
esteeming and acquisitive individual competing for a lucrative office
is jealous of his rival ; and, after failing in the pursuit, regards him
with envy. This pain of Self- Esteem renders him maliciously dis-
posed towards the fortunate candidate ; he bears a grudge against
him, rejoices in his misfortunes, and lets slip no opportunity of
blasting his reputation. In the case here supposed, there is added
to envy the emotion of hatred, which is a compound of the painful
emotion of Self- Esteem, or of some other faculty, with the propen-
sity to injure or destroy.
" The weapons by which Love of Approbation is vulnerable, are
slander, ridicule, and the expression of displeasure ; and it is hardly
necessary to say that these have a strong tendency to excite a desire
to injure the person from whom they proceed. Disappointment of
this feeling has a similar effect. A man who is quashed where he
intends to make a splendid figure, seldom fails to bear a grudge
against the person by whom he is annihilated. When both Self-
Esteem and Love of Approbation are powerful — as they were in
Bonaparte, for example — there is a desire not merely to be ap-
plauded and admired, but to be the grand and prominent object of
applause and admiration — to walk, in short, ' the sole hero upon the
stage.* Such a man is, therefore, jealous of all whom he suspects
of aiming at a share of the eclat, and envies and hates them when
they get more than he. Robert Burns used to be grievously
offended and irritated when not made the lion of the company in
which he was present. The noted case of David and Saul furnishes
another good illustration. When the virgins, in celebrating their
exploits, proclaimed that ' Saul had slain his thousands, and David
his ten thousands,' the king, we are told, ' was very wroth, and the
saying displeased him ; and Saul eyed David from that day and
forward.' An army which has been mortified and disgraced by
defeat at the hands of an enemy before regarded with contempt, is
apt to be extremely ferocious when at length a victory is gained.
The conduct of the Duke of Cumberland's troops in the Highlands
of Scotland, after the battle of CuUoden, illustrates this remark.
General Hawley, in particular, whose arrogance seems to have ex-
ceeded even his folly, is characterized by Mr Chambers as having
been ' one of the most remorseless of all the commanding officers ;
apparently thinking no extent of cruelty a sufficient compensation
for his loss of honour at Falkirk.'
" It is curious, and to some may appear paradoxical, that even
Benevolence can act as a direct stimulus to Destructiveness. Its
disagreeable excitement occurs when we witness the infliction of
pain, and is called pity or compassion. The benevolent man whose
Destructiveness is powerful, has, in such cases, a vivid inclination
to bestow summary chastisement on the inflicter. This is well ex-
emplified by the incident which gave occasion to the maledictory
poem of Burns, written on seeing a wounded hare pass by, and in
which are embodied, In nearly equal proportions, compassion for
the hare, and curses on the man who had wounded it. So enraged
was the poet, that he threatened to throw the sportsman into a
neisfhbourinsr river. In like manner, when a crime of great atro-
city is perpretated against any individual, the anger is not confined
to the sufferer alone. ' There rises,' says Dr. Thomas Brown, ' in
the mind of others, an emotion, not so vivid perhaps, but of the
same kind, involving the same instant dislike of the injurer, and
followed by the same eager desire of punishment for the atrocious
offence. In periods of revolutionary tumult, when the passions of
a mob, and even, in many instances, their most virtuous passions
are the dreadful instruments of which the crafty avail themselves,
how powerfully is this influence of indignation exemplified in the
impetuosity of their vengeance ! Indignation is then truly anger.
The demagogue has only to circulate some tale of oppression ; and
each rushes almost instantly to the punishment of a crime, in which,
though the injury had actually been committed, he had no personal
interest, but which is felt by each as a crime against himself.'
" The offence which impiety, real or imagined, gives to Venera-
tion, is not slow in calling Destructiveness into exercise." " The
Crusades will readily occur to the reader as exhibiting a fearftil
ebullition of Destructiveness excited through the medium of Ven-
The errors daily committed in speaking of genius, demonstrate
strikingly the advantages possessed by the phrenological doctrine
over the old philosophy. In Dr. Carrie's Life of Burns I find the
following passage : —
" He who has the faculties fitted to excel in poetry, has the facul-
ties which, duly governed, and differently directed, might lead to
pre-eminence in other, and, as far as respects himself, perhaps in
happier, destinations. The talents necessary to the construction of
an Iliad, under different discipline and application, might have led
armies to victory, or kingdoms to prosperity ; might have wielded
the thunder of eloquence, or discovered and enlarged the sciences
that constitute the power and improve the condition of our species."
This principle Is also maintained in the following passage from
an article in one of the ablest of our periodicals : —
" Michael Angelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Reubens, or Titian,
would have been Illustrious in any line of life. Mr. Pitt or Mr.
Burke, If greatness had, in Britain, been accessible by such a
channel, would have made magnificent painters." — Blackwood's
Magazine, vol. xl. p. 83.
Phrenology demonstrates the extreme fallacy of such doctrines.
According to Dr. Currie's view of the case, Homer might have
excelled in science, and become a Newton ; but, if this reasoning
is sound, it follows that Newton — who declared poetry to be ingen-
ious nonsense — might also have become a Homer, and written a
second Iliad instead of the Principia. The chief essentials to poeti-
cal excellence are imagination, and the power of embodying its
productions in sublime or beautiful language ; but such qualities
are in no respect necessary to excel in mathematics. Again, al-
though a man is a poet, it does not follow that he can command
armies or rule kingdoms successfully, for both of these feats can be
performed well without either lofty imagination or poetical lan-
guage ; and if he had the two latter qualities in the utmost possible
degree, he would not make a better general or practical statesman
than if he wanted them entirely. Demosthenes and Horace prove
that distinguished orators and poets may run away panic-struck from
the field of battle. Cowper occupies a high rank as a poet ; but
was ever man so totally destitute of warlike qualities ? With respect
to painting, powerful faculties of Form, Size, Constructiveness,
Colouring, and Imitation, are essential to eminence in that art ; but
of what use are they in eloquence or statesmanship ? None what-
ever : hence had Pitt and Burke been destitute of them, these
highly-gifted men never by any possibility could have been con-
verted into painters, while their oratory and power to guide the helm
of the state would not have been in the least degree impaired by such
a want. The illustrious artists mentioned in the quotation were men
of surprising versatility of talent; but it cannot be doubted that in
many things they would not have shone with any degree of lustre.
A great painter or orator may or may not excel in other walks ; but
we never can infer that he does so excel merely because he chances
to be great as a painter or orator. If a man eminent in one depart-
ment must necessarily excel in another, why did Pope try in vain
to succeed as a painter ? We know that he made the attempt ear-
nestly, and we know also that he utterly failed. Had he possessed
the cerebral configuration indispensable to painting as perfectly as
that which confers poetic talent, his excellence would have been
equally decided in both departments. Nature, however, while she
showered upon him one divine gift, denied him the other; and no
more could he have rivalled the productions of any master of the
pictorial art, than walked under the armour of Goliath, or wielded
the club of Hercules. Cicero, in like manner, although the greatest
of Roman orators, showed himself, as a poet, to be utterly ridiculous
The following extraordinary case of Homicidal Monomania I
find published in the Athenaeum. The subject of it bears a strong
resemblance to the character of Rene Cardillac, the jeweller, as
detailed in Hoffman's powerfully written tale, entitled "Made-
moiselle de Scuderi:" —
" INSANE ATTACHMENT TO BOOKS.
" The Spanish papers contain the report of one of the most sin-
gular trials that for a long time has amused or interested the public.
It is the trial which has recently taken place at Barcelona, of an ex-
Monk, Friar Vincente, who was condemned for having committed
several murders, instigated solely by his love of books. The last
murder, that which led to the discovery of the assassin, was that of
a poor book-vender, named Patxot, who kept his shop (a stall)
under the pillars de los Encantes, at Barcelona. Friar, or ex- friar,
Vincente, for he called himself Don Vincente, had, on expulsion
from his convent, established himself under the same pillars, for
the purpose of vending books, and had contrived to secure a good
share of the literary riches of his convent on his own shelves. Like
several bibliopoles amongst ourselves, Vincente, though fond of
selling, was still more desirous of having and keeping; and he
never parted with a genuine book-treasure without manifest reluc-
tance. At times he was known to fly into a passion, and abuse the
happy persons who purchased and were about to carry otf an antique
" About four months since an auction took place of the library
of an old lawyer. Amongst the books was a glorious copy of the
' Furs e Ordinacions fetes per los Gloriosos Reys de Arago als
Regnicols del regno de Valencia.' It was printed in 1482, by
Palmartj who introduced printing into Spain. Patxot desired much
to have it, but Vincente's desire was still greater. The latter bid
upwards of ,£50 sterling, but Patxot bid still higher ; and Vincente
was obliged to abandon it to his rival. Patxot carried it off in
triumph, but Vincente was heard to murmur vengeance. Ere a
week had elapsed, the shop of Patxot was consumed by flames, and
the body of the unfortunate bibliopole reduced to ashes, together,
as it was supposed, with all his treasures.
" The authorities did not think of inquiring into a circumstance
that seemed natural, until the number of assassinations began to
attract attention. A German literateur, who visited Barcelona, had
been found murdered ; a curate also of the neighbourhood. This
was at first attributed to political causes, until at length it was
remarked that all the victims were men of studious habits. An
alcalde, Don Pablo Rafael, author of many learned works, had dis-
appeared ; a judge, too, and other functionaries.
" It was forthwith rumoured that the Inquisition had been secretly
re-established, and that a tribunal under its laws held mysterious
sittings, and pronounced these fearful sentences, so fearfully exe-
cuted. Search was made at the domiciles of all persons supposed
likely to belong to such a society : and, in pursuance of this suspi-
cion, the shop of Don, or Friar, Vincente was searched. Nothing
Was found but books. The Corregidor seized one of these, the
' Directorium Inquisitorum ' of Gironne, as relating to his object ;
when the removal of the volume caused another to fall, which had
been secreted behind it. This was picked up, and opened, and
proved to be the ' Furs e Ordinacions,' the volume purchased so
dearly at the sale by poor Patxot, and which was now found in the
possession of his rival bidder. The search was continued, and
another book was found, which had belonged to Don Pablo N ,
another victim. Vincente was seized, confined, menaced, and at
length promised to confess, upon one condition, — viz., that his col-
lection of books should not be scattered or sold to different persons.
Satisfied in this respect, Vincente made a clean breast, and repeated
his confession, with full explanations respecting his conduct, on the
day of his trial.
" Placed at the bar, Vincente appeared, a little, stout, dark, man,
with ruddy and open countenance. Having made the sign of the
cross, he thus began : —
" ' I will tell the truth ; I have promised it. If I have been
guilty, it has been with good intentions. I wished to enrich science,
and pi'eserve its treasures. If I have done ill, punish me ; but
leave ray books together — they have done no harm. It was most
reluctantly I consented to sell my first precious book to a curate.
St. John is witness I did my utmost to disgust him with it. I told
bim it was a bad copy, had a page in manuscript, &c. ; all would
not do ; he paid the price, and went away. As he walked off,
along the Calle Ancho, I followed him, begged him to take back
his money, and return the book. Ke refused; and whilst I was
entreating him, we reached a lone place. Wearied with his obsti-
nacy, I took out my dagger, and stabbed him, rolled him into the
ditch, and covered him with branches, and carried home my pre-
cious volume, which I see yonder on the table.'
" The President then asked if this was the only tim,e he had
killed persons for their books. Vincente replied : ' My library is
too well stocked for that : no se gano Zamora en una hora — Rome
was not built in a day.'
" The President bade him explain how he had dispatched the
other victims. Vincente replied : * Nothing more simple. When
I found a purchaser so obstinate as that he would have the volume,
I tore out some pages, well aware that he would come back for
them. When he did, I drew him into an inner room, under pre-
tence of replacing the pages, and then dispatched him. My arm
never failed me.'
" ' Did not your heart revolt at thus destroying the image of your
" ' Men are mortal ; they die sooner or later. But books are
not so ; they are immortal, and merit more interest.'
•* ' And you committed murder merely for books?'
" ' And for what more would you ? Books are the gloria de
dios' — (the glory of God.)
" ' And Patxot, how did you murder him ?'
" ' I got in by the window, found him asleep, threw a soaped
cord about his neck, and strangled him. When he was dead I took
off the cord, set fire to the bed, and withdrew.'
" The advocate of Vincente endeavoured to invalidate the evi-
dence, by proving that the copy of the work which Patxot had
bought was not unique. This he succeeded in proving ; and which
affected his client more than anything else, — more even than his
sentence. Notwithstanding, he was condemned to the penalty of
the garrote — (strangulation.")
PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS FOR THE PHRENOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
In the fourth edition of Mr. Combe's " System of Phrenology,"
vol. i. p. 110 — 130, ample details are given with respect to the
points to be attended to, in making a prenological survey of the
head. By the permission of that gentleman, I subjoin some of
his remarks on this important subject; more of them, indeed, than,
without such permission, I should have considered myself at liberty
" As size, ccBferis paribus, is a measure of power, the first object
ought to be to distinguish the size of the brain generally, so as to
judge whether it be large enough to admit of manifestations of
ordinary vigour; for, as we have already seen, if it be too small,
idiocy is the invariable consequence. The second object should
be to ascertain the relative proportions of the different parts, so as
to determine the direction in which the power is greatest.
" It is proper to begin with observation of the more palpable
differences in size, and particularly °to attend to the relative propor-
tions of the different lobes. The size of the anterior lobe is the
measure of intellect. In the brain it is easily distinguished, and
in the livino- head it is indicated by the proportion lying before
Constructiveness and Benevolence. Sometimes the lower part of
the frontal lobe, connected with the perceptive faculties, is the
largest, and this is indicated by the space before Constructiveness
extending farthest forward at the base; sometimes the upper part,
connected with the reflecting powers, is the most amply developed,
in which case the projection is greatest in the upper region ; and
sometimes both are equally developed. The student is particularly
requested to resort invariably to this mode of estimating the size
of the anterior lobe, as the best for avoiding mistakes. In some
individuals, the forehead is tolerably perpendicular, so that, seen
in front, and judging of without attending to longitudinal depth, it
appears to be largely developed; whereas, when viewed in the
way now pointed out, it is seen to be extremely shallow. In other
words, the mass is not large, and the intellectual manifestations will
be proportionately feeble.
" Besides the projection of the forehead, its vertical and lateral
dimensions require to be attended to ; a remark which applies to
all the organs individually — each having, of course, like other
objects, the three dimensions of length, breadth, and thickness.
" The posterior lobe is devoted chiefly to the animal propensities.
In the brain its size is easily distinguished; and in the living head
a perpendicular line may be drawn through the mastoid process,
and all behind will belong to the posterior lobe. Wherever this
and the basilar region are large, the animal feelings will be strong,
and vice versa.
" The coronal region of the brain is the seat of the moral senti-
ments; and its size may be estimated by the extent of elevation and
expansion of the head above the organs of Causality in the fore-
head, and of Cautiousness in the middle of the parietal bones.
When the whole region of the brain rising above these organs is
shallow and narrow, the moral feelings will be weakly manifested ;
when high and expanded, they will be vigorously displayed.
" After becoming familiar with the general size and configuration
of heads, the student may proceed to the observation of individual
organs; and, in studying them, the real dimensions, including
length, breadth, and thickness, and not the mere prominence of
each organ, should be looked for.
" The length of an organ, including its supposed apparatus of
communication, is ascertained by the distance from the medulla
oblongata to the peripheral surface. A line passing through the
head from one ear to the other, would nearly touch the medulla
oblongata, and hence the external opening of the ear is assumed as
a convenient point from which to estimate length. The breadth
of an organ is judged of by its peripheral expansion j for it is a
general law of physiology, that the breadth of an organ throughout
its whole course bears a relation to its expansion at the surface:
the optic and olfactory nerves are examples in point.
" The whole organs in a head should be examined, and their
relative proportions noted. Errors may be committed at first ; but
without practice, there will be no expertness. Practice, with at least
an average endowment of the organs of Form, Size, Individuality,
and Locality, are necessary to qualify a person to make observations
with success. Individuals whose heads are narrow between the
eyes, and little developed at the top of the nose, where these organs
are placed, experience great difficulty in distinguishing the situa-
tions and minute shades in the proportions of different organs. If
one organ be much developed, and the neighbouring organs very
little, the developed organ will present an elevation or protuberance ;
but if the neighbouring organs be developed in proportion, no
protuberance can be perceived, and the surface is smooth. The
student should learn from books, plates, and casts, or personal
instruction (and the last is by far the best,) to distinguish the^rm
of each organ, and its appearance when developed in different
proportions to the others, because there are slight modifications in
the position of them in each head.
" The prenological bust shows the situations of the organs, and
their proportions, only in one head; and it is impossible by it to
communicate more information. The different appearances in all
the varieties of relative size, must be discovered by inspecting a
number of heads ; and especially by contrasting instances of extreme
development with others of extreme deficiency. No adequate idea
of the foundation of the science can be formed until this is done.
In cases of extreme size of single organs, a close approximation to
the forin delineated on the bust, (leaving angles out of view) is
" The question will perhaps occur — If the relative proportions
of the organs differ in each individual, and if the phrenological
bust represents only their rnost common proportions, how are their
boundaries to be distinguished in any particular living head? The
answer is, By their forjns and appearances. Each organ has a form,
appearance, and situation, which it is possible, by practice, to
distinguish in the living head, otherwise Phrenology cannot have
" When one organ is very largely developed, it encroaches on
the space usually occupied by the neighbouring organs, the situa-
tions of which are thereby slightly altered. When this occurs, it
may be distinguished by the greatest prominence being near the
centre of the large organ, and the swelling extending over a portion
only of the other. In these cases the shape should be attended to ;
for the form of the organ is then easily recognised, and is a sure
indication of the particular one which is largely developed. The
observer should learn, by inspecting a skull, to distinguish the
mastoid process behind the ear, as also bony excrescences sometimes
formed by the sutures, and several bony prominences which occur
in every head, from elevations produced by development of brain.
" In observing the appearance of individual organs, it is proper
to begin with the largest, and select extreme cases. The mask of
Mr. Joseph Hume may be contrasted with that of Dr. Chalmers
for Ideality ; the organ being much larger in the latter than in the
former. The casts of the skulls of Burns and Haggart may be
compared at the same part; the difference being equally conspicu-
ous. The cast of the Reverend Mr. M. may be contrasted with
that of Dempsey, in the region of Love of Approbation; the former
having this organ large, and the latter small. Self- Esteem in the
latter, being exceedingly large, may be compared with the same
organ in the skull of Dr. Hette, in whom Love of Approbation is
much larger than Self-Esteera, Destructiveness in Bellingham
may be compared with the same organ in the skulls of the Hindoos ;
the latter people being in general tender of life. Firmness large,
and Conscientiousness deficient, in King Robert Bruce, may be
compared with the same organs reversed in the cast of the head of
a lady (Mrs. H.) which is sold as illustrative of these organs. The
object of making these contrasts is to obtain an idea of the diflferent
appearances presented by organs, when very large and very small,
" The terms used by the Edinburgh phrenologists to denote the
gradations of size in the different organs, in an increasing ratio, are
Very small Moderate Rather large
Small Rather full Large
Rather small Full Very large.
" Sir John Ross has suggested, that numerals may be applied
with advantage to the notation of development. He uses decimals ;
but these appear unnecessarily minute. The end in view may be
attained by such a scale as is given in Appendix No. I.
* " With respect to the practical employment of the scale above
described, it is proper to remark, that as each phrenologist attaches
to the terms small, moderate, full, &c. shades of meaning perfectly
known only to himself and those accustomed to observe heads
along with him, the separate statements of the development of a
particular head by two phrenologists, are not likely to correspond
entirely with each ether. It ought to be kept in mind, also, that
these terms indicate only the relative proportions of the organs to
each other in the same head; but as the different organs may bear
the same proportions in a small and in a large head, the terms
mentioned do not enable the reader to discover whether the head
treated of be, in its general magnitude, small, moderate, or large.
To supply this information, measurement by callipers is resorted to ;
but this is used not to indicate the dimensions of particular organs,
for which purpose they are not adapted, but merely to indicate
the general size of the head.
" It ought to be kept constantly in view, in the practical appli-
cation of Phrenology, that it is the size of each organ in proportion
to the others in the head of the individual observed, and not their
absolute size, or their size in reference to any standard head, that
determines the predominance in him of particular talents or dis-
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